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intelligence preparation of the battlespace ipb and battlespace area evaluation ipb steps 1 2 n.
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  1. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB) and Battlespace Area Evaluation (IPB Steps 1 & 2)

  2. Purpose • Teach Steps 1 & 2 of the IPB Process, the use of the Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay (MCOO) and its role in the Marine Corps Planning Process (MCPP) Goal • To build your understanding of how to conduct • steps 1 & 2 of the IPB process, build a MCOO, • and apply IPB as part of battlespace Area • Evaluation

  3. IPB support to MCPP FUNCTIONAL AREA IPB USE IPB PRODUCTS Weather Effects Terrain Analysis Doctrinal Templates Situational Templates Event Templates Fires Target Acquisition Target Value Analysis Weapons Emplacement Maneuver Barrier Planning Route Improvements Route Reconnaissance Communications Communications Site Selection EA Planning Counter-Surveillance Planning Logistics Installation Site Selection LOC / Rear Area Threat Analysis Aviation Target Acquisition Target Tracking Target Value Analysis Enemy AAA Weapons Emplacement Enemy Air Threat

  4. IPB • Why is IPB critical to Planning? • Analyzes weather and terrain factors, • Focuses on threat capabilities, • Provides graphics: picture worth 1,000 words, • Gives us common situational awareness using common terminology leading to effective integrated planning.

  5. What is IPB? • Systematic, continuous process of analyzing the threat and the environment in a specific area • Helps the Commanderselectively apply and maximize his combat power in time and space • Describes the environment and its effects where your unit and the enemy are operating • Helps determine the enemy’s most likelyand most dangerous COA

  6. Battlespace Defined The environment, factors, and conditions which must be understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission. This includes the air, land, sea, space, and the included enemy and friendly forces, facilities, weather, terrain, the electromagnetic spectrum, and information environment within the operational areas and areas of interest. JP 1-02 Battlespace is conceptual—a higher commander does not assign it. MCDP 1-0

  7. IPB: 4 Function Process BATTLE SPACE AREA OF OPERATIONS AREA OF INTEREST AREA OF INFLUENCE ANALYSIS SITUATION TEMPLATES & EVENT TEMPLATE Step 1: Define the battlespace Environment Step 3: Evaluate the Threat Step 4: Determine Threat COAs Step 2: Describe the battlespace Effects MODIFIED COMBINED OBSTACLE OVERLAY DOCTRINAL TEMPLATE EVALUATION

  8. Define the Battlespace Environment

  9. Commander’s Battlespace The commander’s battlespace consists of his area of operations, the area of influence, and the area of interest. MCWP 5-1 Area of Interest Area of Influence Area of Interest Area of Operations Area of Interest

  10. Area of Operations (AO) XXX XXX XXX XXX An operational area defined by the JFC for landandnaval forces...should be large enough for...commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. JP 1-02 • Assigned by Higher Headquarters • DOES NOT include Air Space The AO is the tangible area of battlespace and is the only area of battlespace that a commander is directly responsible for. MCDP 1-0

  11. GRID 662147 GRID 885080 PE1-3 GRID 623039 GRID 735972 UNCLASSIFIED

  12. Area of Interest • That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. JP 1-02 • Where is the enemy and his friends? • Where am I and my friends? • Where am I going? Your Area of Interest should be in direct relation to your immediate mission and the friendly and enemy capabilities that will effect that mission.

  13. Cmdr • A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commander’s command or control. JP 1-02 Area of Influence

  14. Battlespace Environment • ID amount of detail required based on time available. • MEU v MEB / MEF • ID existing data bases and intelligence gaps. • Initiate collections / RFIs. Desired End State: • Focused IPB effort -- command’s mission • Acquire information -- Intelligence processing in support of IPB

  15. Area of Interest (AOI) 6 8th 2 6 2 MarDiv G E F 6 6 6 2 6 Area of Influence Battle Space Area of Operations (AO) 1 3 6 6 Regt Obj B 4 22 27 15 12 9 28 20 24 64 18 Regt Obj A LAR 2d S 83 S A 14 LAR 2d S S B

  16. Step 2 Describe the Battlespace’s Effects

  17. Describe the Battlespace Effects • Analyze the battlespace environment • Terrain analysis • Weather analysis • Civil considerations • Describe the battlespace’s effects on threat and friendly capabilities and broad COAs

  18. 21 July D - 5 22 July D - 4 23 July D - 3 24 July D - 2 25 July D - 1 10 OVC 10 OVC 30 OVC 100 BKN 100 BKN Layered Layered to 100 to 100 0501/0603 0501/0603 0501/0603 0501/0603 0501/0603 1810/1912 1810/1912 1810/1912 1810/1912 1810/1912 0434/2138 0435/2137 0436/2136 0436/2136 0437/2135 56% 67% 76% 84% 91% D-Day D + 1 D + 2 D + 3 D + 4 D + 5 D + 6 D + 7 CLOSE AIR SUPPORT/ AERIAL INTERDICTION HELIBORNE OPERATIONS TARGET ACQUISITION AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS SPECIAL OPERATIONS AERIAL IMAGERY HUMAN EFFECTS GROUND OPERATIONS VEGETATION SURFACE DRAINAGE ALL OTHER EFFECTS COMBINED OBSTACLES AVENUES OF APPROACH MODIFIED COMBINED OBSTACLES OVERLAY NO IMPACT MARGINAL IMPACT SIGNIFICANT IMPACT Describe the Effects • Weather and Astronomic data • Terrain and Hydrography • Populations and Demographics • Infrastructure • Other considerations UNCLASSIFIED 18

  19. Describe Environmental Effects

  20. Products Produced • MODIFIED COMBINED OBSTACLE OVERLAY(S) Integrated weather and terrain analysis. • AVENUES OF APPROACH OVERLAY--Defines most likely threat and friendly axes of advance. • LINE OF SIGHT STUDIES • HYDROLOGY OVERLAYS • LOC OVERLAYS • WEATHER CHARTS / FORECASTS.

  21. Terrain Analysis • Simply identifying obstacles is not analysis!!! • Analysis is: • The cross-country mobility classification • The military aspects of terrain • Which force has the advantage and why? i.e. The terrain in our AO offers many concealed routes which would allow for infiltration as a good form of maneuver

  22. Terrain products from Higher Evaluate terrain through map analysis Evaluate terrain through reconnaissance Terrain Analysis Effect on Military Operations (Friendly and Threat)

  23. Terrain Analysis Data Base • Made up of the following materials: • Current intelligence studies/ estimates • Special studies • Regional handbooks • Open source and HN publications • NIMA products--Maps/Charts, etc.

  24. NIMA Topographic Maps • Don’t Expect Them to Provide Details On: Bridges and Lines of Communication Micro-relief features Soil types Vegetation Waterways

  25. Terrain Analysis • Military Aspects of Terrain (OAKOC) • Obstacles • Avenues of Approach • Key Terrain • Observation and Fields of Fire • Cover and Concealment

  26. Obstacles and Cross-Country Mobility Classification • Any natural or manmade feature that canalizes, delays, restricts or diverts movement • Classified as either Existing or Reinforcing • Examples: • Existing: Steep terrain, soil type, bodies of water, built-up areas, large open areas for light forces, dense forested areas, battlespace debris • Reinforcing: manmade obstacles emplaced to enhance the effects of existing obstacles – wire, minefields, ditches

  27. Cross-Country Mobility Classification Done in blue if a body of water Done in blue if a body of water • Unrestricted • Indicates terrain free of constraints to movement; no need to enhance mobility so no delineation is required. • Restricted • Hinders movement to some degree; little effort is needed to enhance movement, but units cannot move at preferred speeds or formations • Severely Restricted • Hinders or slows movement in combat formations unless some effort is made to enhance mobility

  28. Mobility Classifications • Unrestricted:0-30% slope • Free of restrictions • Restricted: 31-45% slope • Hinders movement; some effort needed to enhance mobility • Use march formation with only minimal delay • Severely Restricted:>45% slope • Severely hinders / slows movement unless effort is made to enhance mobility • examples: minefields, cities, heavily wooded areas

  29. % SLOPE Analyze Cross-Country Mobility 40m 20 % 200m 80m 40 % 200m 80m 50 % 160m

  30. MCOO Symbology Severely Restricted NOTE: ALWAYS BUILD A LEGEND Restricted See FM 34-130 Roads/Trails Water Obstacles Manmade Obstacles (Severely Restricted or Restricted) Key Terrain K1

  31. Obstacles 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 …..

  32. Terrain Analysis • Military Aspects of Terrain (OAKOC) • Obstacles • Avenues of Approach • Key Terrain • Observation and Fields of Fire • Cover and Concealment

  33. Avenues of Approach • An air or groundroute of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path • Ground Avenues of Approach – Three types • Mounted • Dismounted • Subterranean • Mobility Corridors are areas where a force will be canalized due to terrain restrictions

  34. Avenues of Approach • To develop AA’s: • Identify mobility corridors • Categorize mobility corridors • Group mobility corridors * • Evaluate AA’s • Prioritize AA’s

  35. Mobility Corridors That area within an AA which allows a particular sized unit to deploy and maneuver in its doctrinal, tactical formation. Sub-sets of Avenues of Approach

  36. Mobility Corridors K K K ID and Categorize XX

  37. Mobility Corridors • MC’s are open areas through which a unit can maneuver. • MC’s usually follow the direction of roads or trails. • MC doctrinal widths (rule of thumb): UNITWIDTH- Division 6 Km- Regiment/Bde3 Km- Battalion1.5 Km- Company 500 m- Platoon 200 m

  38. Avenues of Approach • AAs are the combination of two or more MCs, provided the MCs are close enough. • Doctrinal widths between MCs (rule of thumb):AAsMCsWIDTH Division Regt/Bde 10 km Regt/Bde Bn 6 km Bn Co 2 km

  39. Avenue of Approach (Main Effort) Avenue of Approach (Supporting Effort) Air Avenue of Approach Avenue of Approach Symbology NOTE: Always depict AAs from the suspected start point all the way to the probable objective.

  40. Mobility Corridors K K K ID and Categorize XX

  41. Mobility Corridors K K K Group into AA OBJ X

  42. Mobility Corridors K K K Group into AA OBJ X AA1 AA2

  43. AA Overlay OBJ AA1 AA2

  44. Avenues of Approach 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 18 17 16 AA2 15 14 13 AA1 12 11 10

  45. Terrain Analysis • Military Aspects of Terrain (OAKOC) • Obstacles • Avenues of Approach • Key Terrain • Observation and Fields of Fire • Cover and Concealment

  46. Key Terrain • Any locality or area, the seizure, retention or control of provides a marked advantage to either combatant • Examples: • Terrain with good observation over Avenues of Approach • Terrain from which obstacles can be covered by observation and fires • Terrain that is comprised of LOCs, facilities or has a sustainment function

  47. Key Terrain 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 18 17 16 AA2 K1 15 14 13 K2 AA1 12 K3 11 K4 10

  48. Terrain Analysis • Military Aspects of Terrain (OAKOC) • Obstacles • Avenues of Approach • Key Terrain • Observation and Fields of Fire • Cover and Concealment

  49. Observation and Fields of Fire • Observation • Ability to see in terrain or from the air either visually or electronically with surveillance devices • Fields of Fire • Areas that a weapon or group of weapons may effectively cover with fire from a given position • Focus on the effectsof enemy and friendly crew served weapons • What’s the analysis part?Who has the advantage and why!

  50. Terrain Analysis • Military Aspects of Terrain (OAKOC) • Obstacles • Avenues of Approach • Key Terrain • Observation and Fields of Fire • Cover and Concealment