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Factory. Words to Know. Kalahari Desert San People Apartheid Nelson Mandela F.W. deKlerk Desmond Tutu Thabo Mbeki. Graphic Organizer. South Africa. South Africa Timeline. 1400s: Z ulu and Xhosa tribes establish large kingdoms in the South Africa region.

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  1. Factory

  2. Words to Know • Kalahari Desert • San People • Apartheid • Nelson Mandela • F.W. deKlerk • Desmond Tutu • Thabo Mbeki

  3. Graphic Organizer South Africa

  4. South Africa Timeline • 1400s: Zulu and Xhosa tribes establish large kingdoms in the South Africa region. • 1652: The Dutch establish the port of Cape Town. The are the first Europeans to settle in South Africa. • 1852: The British take control of Cape Town. • 1886: Gold is discovered in Johannesburg, making the city rich. • 1899-1902:Dutch settlers fight the British in the Boer War. Britain eventually gains control of South Africa. • 1910: South Africa becomes an independent nation. • 1918: Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela is born on July 18 in a small village in South Africa. A teacher later gives him the English name Nelson. • 1948: Apartheid is introduced. Laws legally and physically separate different racial groups. • 1952: The African National Congress, a black civil rights group, begins a Campaign for Defiance of Unjust Laws as a protest against apartheid. Nelson Mandela is one of its leaders. • 1960: In the town of Sharpeville, 67 Africans are killed while protesting Apartheid. • 1962: Mandela is arrested for plotting against the government. Though he stays active politically, he will spend 27 years in prison. • 1976: Hundreds of black protesters are killed in an uprising in Soweto. • 1990: President F.W. de Klerk announces the end of apartheid. Mandela is freed from prison after serving 27 years. • 1993: De Klerk and Mandela are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. • 1994: South Africa holds its first elections in which all races can vote. Nelson Mandela is elected President.

  5. Geography • South Africa is one of the most geographically varied countries of the African continent, comprising territory that ranges from the rolling, fertile plains and the wide open savanna of the Eastern Transvaal to the Kalahari desert and the peaks of the Drakensberg Mountains. The Kalahari Desert is in Africa at the southern part and the desert is a portion of desert and a plateau. The Kalahari Desert supports some unique animals and plants because most of it is not true desert. There are small amounts of rainfall and the summer temperature is very high

  6. The San people or Bushmen have lived in the Kalahari for 20,000 years as hunter-gatherers. They survive by hunting wild game with bows and arrows and gathering edible plants like berries, melons and nuts as well as insects. Bushmen rarely drink water; they get most of water requirements from plant roots and desert melons found on or under desert floor: they often store water in the blown-out shells of ostrich eggs. The San have their own characteristic language that includes clicking sounds. These Bushmen live in huts built from local materials - the frame is made of branches and the roof is thatched with long grass.

  7. Graphic Organizer San People Kalahari Desert South Africa

  8. The San people were the first settlers; the Khoikhoi and Bantu-speaking tribes followed. • The Dutch East India Company landed the first European settlers on the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, launching a colony that by the end of the 18th century numbered only about 15,000. The Dutch settlers became known as Boers or Afrikaners, and speaking a Dutch dialect known as Afrikaans, the settlers as early as 1795 tried to establish an independent republic. The Afrikaners had a huge social impact on southern Africa. Unfortunately, they pursued a policy of racial segregation, based on a belief in the racial superiority of Europeans in all of the areas they settled. • In the early part of the 19th century the history of southern Africa is marked by the massive expansion of the Nguni empire under the military leadership of Shaka.

  9. Britain took permanent possession in 1815 bringing in 5,000 additional settlers. • The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold nine years later brought an influx of “outlanders” (more British settlers) into the area. South Africa exports more gold and diamonds than any other African nation per year. • What British expansionists called the “inevitable” war with the Boers broke out on Oct. 11, 1899 The Boers wanted an independent state free of British rule. The defeat of the Boers in 1902 led to the Union of South Africa in 1910 as a dependent state under The United Kingdom.

  10. World War II brought the nation on the Allied side against the Axis Powers. Apartheid— government sponsored racial separation-Black voters were removed from the voter rolls in 1936. Over the next half-century, the nonwhite population of South Africa was forced out of designated white areas. The Group Areas Acts of 1950 and 1986 forced about 1.5 million Africans to move from cities to rural townships, where they lived in abject poverty under repressive laws. • South Africa declared itself a republic in 1961 and severed its ties with the United Kingdom, which strongly objected to the country's racist policies. The white supremacist National Party, which had first come to power in 1948, would continue its rule for the next three decades.

  11. In 1960, 70 black protesters were killed during a peaceful demonstration in Sharpesville. The African National Congress (ANC), the principal antiapartheid organization, was banned that year, and in 1964 its leader, Nelson Mandela, was sentenced to life imprisonment. • Protests against apartheid grew stronger and more violent. In 1976, an uprising in the black township of Soweto spread to other black townships and left 600 dead. Beginning in the 1960s, international opposition to apartheid intensified. The UN imposed sanctions, and many countries sold their South African holdings.

  12. F.W. deKlerk • Apartheid's grip on South Africa began to give way when F. W. de Klerk replaced P. W. Botha as president in 1989. De Klerk removed the ban on the ANC and released its leader, Nelson Mandela, after 27 years of imprisonment.

  13. In 1991, a multiracial forum led by de Klerk and Mandela, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA), began working on a new constitution. The peaceful transition of South Africa from one of the world's most repressive societies into a democracy is one of the 20th century's most remarkable success stories. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. • The 1994 election, the country's first multiracial one, resulted in a massive victory for Mandela and his ANC and the end of Apartheid.

  14. Another key player in the anti-apartheid movement was Bishop Desmond Tutu (catholic). He worked with foreign governments to bring pressure against the government of South Africa to bring an end to the racial segregation. He as later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize • On June 2, 1999 Thabo Mbeki was elected president. • In his first term, Mbeki wrestled with a slumping economy and a skyrocketing crime rate. South Africa, the country with the highest number of HIV-positive people in the world (6.5 million in 2005), has been hampered in fighting the epidemic by its president's highly controversial views. Mbeki has denied the link between HIV and AIDS and claimed that the West has exaggerated the epidemic to boost drug profits. The international community have condemned Mbeki's stance.

  15. Graphic Organizer San People Nelson Mandela Kalahari Desert Apartheid F.W. deKlerk South Africa Desmond Tutu

  16. South Africans have been referred to as the 'rainbow nation', describing the country's cultural diversity. Of the 45 million South Africans, nearly 31 million are Black, 5 million White, 3 million mixed and one million Indian. The Black population is divided into four major ethnic groups, namely Nguni, Sotho, Shangaan-Tsonga and Venda. The majority of the White population is of Afrikaans descent (60%), with many of the remaining 40% being of British descent. Languages: There are eleven official languages in South Africa (some of those are…) Xhosa:Approximately 18 percent of South Africa’s population Xhosa Zulu:To 24% of South Africans, Zulu is considered to be their home language Afrikaans:The Afrikaans language is one of South Africa’s official languages and a majority of South Africa’s population uses this as their first or second language. Venda Ndebele Sepedi Setswana Southern Sesotho Swati Tsonga

  17. Johannesburg • The largest and most populous city in South Africa is Johannesburg (not the capital). • Johannesburg is the source of a large-scale gold and diamond trade.

  18. Government • South Africa is the only country in the world with three capital cities: Cape Town, the largest of the three, is the legislative capital; Pretoria is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein is the judicial capital. South Africa has a bicameral parliament. Federal Republic, Parliamentary Democracy.

  19. S.A. Economy • By UN classification South Africa is a middle-income country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers. South Africa is ranked 20th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2007. • Advanced development is significantly localized around four areas: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Pretoria/Johannesburg. Beyond these four economic centers, the vast majority of South Africans are poor. • Other problems are crime, corruption, and HIV/AIDS.

  20. Graphic Organizer San People Nelson Mandela Kalahari Desert Apartheid F.W. deKlerk South Africa Desmond Tutu Poverty Current Issues Thabo Mbeki HIV/AIDS

  21. South African Economy • The economy is mixed with some businesses state-owned while others are controlled by private individuals.

  22. Trade Barriers (CRCT Review) • A trade barrier is a general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade. The barriers can take many forms, including: • Quotas • Tariffs • Embargo • Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some sort of cost on trade that raises the price of the traded products. If two or more nations repeatedly use trade barriers against each other, then a trade war results. • Economists generally agree that trade barriers are detrimental and decrease overall economic efficiency, this can be explained by the theory of comparative advantage.

  23. On the back of your graphic organizer, please match the below trade barrier with its definition. • A tax on goods when they cross a national border. • A type of protectionist trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time. • The prohibition of trade with a certain country, in order to isolate it and to put its government into a difficult internal situation. Embargo Tariff Quota

  24. Describe the ways governments distribute power • Unitary- a form of government in which power is held by one central authority. • Confederation-voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation. • Federal-a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. • Which one is South Africa today???? Write your answer in your Notes

  25. Citizen participation in government • Autocratic-government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government. • Oligarchic-Government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has very limited role. • Democratic-Government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly. • Which one is South Africa today???? • Write your answer in your Notes

  26. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments • Parliamentary-system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature. • Presidential-a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature. • Which one does South Africa have today???? • Write your answer in your Notes

  27. Bibliography • History of South Africa, BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index_section12.shtml. November 23, 2007 • South Africa. Fact Monster. http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107983.html. November 23, 2007 • Geography of South Africa. http://www.geographia.com/south-africa/ • Naidoo, B. Journey to Jo’burg. http://teachers.eusd.k12.ca.us/jleff/LitUnits/Journey%20to%20Jo'Burg.htm November 23, 2007

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