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Occupational Health

Occupational Health

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Occupational Health

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  1. Occupational Health Brig MahmoodurRahman Professor and Head of Dept Community Medicine

  2. We Will Discuss • Concept of Occupational Health • Occupational Medicine & Hygiene • Ergonomics Overview • Ergonomic Hazards

  3. Occupational Health • The modern definition of Occupational Health (ILO and WHO) is: “The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations – total health of all at work”

  4. Goals • To reduce industrial accidents. • To prevent occupational hazards/ diseases. • To achieve maximum human efficiency and machine efficiency. • To reduce sick absenteeism.

  5. Aim & Objectives (Defined by ILO & WHO) Promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupations Prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions i.e. identification & control of health hazards

  6. Protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health Placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological & psychological capability Adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job

  7. Occupational Medicine It includes practice of general preventive medicine with some therapeutic functions Main responsibilities of an occupational physician are: Medical examinations Treatment services for illness and injury Knowledge/Monitoring of the work environment Epidemiological studies (morbidity, mortality) Health Education

  8. Occupational Hygiene An applied science concerned with identification, measurement, appraisal and control of risks according to laid down physical, chemical and biological standards It involves Recognitionof health hazards Evaluationof degree of hazard Controlof health hazards

  9. What is Ergonomics? • The study of work; OR • The discipline that matches the job to the worker

  10. Ergonomics • The term ergonomics is derived from two greek words ergon meaning work and nomoi meaning natural laws. • Ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands.

  11. Ergonomics Ergonomics is human factors engineering. Study of the behaviour and activities of people working with Mechanical & Electronic machines and tools. All work regardless of its nature places both physical and mental stress on workers. There is a need to keep these stresses within reasonable limits.

  12. Functions of Ergonomic Specialist • To design & improve the workplace equipments. • To improve the procedures of work to ensure safe, healthy & efficient working environment. • To design facilities in factories/ offices, furniture, equipment, tool & job demands compatible with human dimensions, capabilities & expectations.

  13. Goal of Ergonomics To design jobs to fit people, this means taking account of differences such as size, strength, and ability to handle instruments for a wide range of users Benefits Improved efficiency Improvedquality job satisfaction

  14. Multi-Disciplinary Nature of Ergonomics • Anatomy and Physiology • Engineering Psychology • Engineering • Medicine • Anthropology • Biomechanics

  15. Benefits of Ergonomics • Decreased risk of injury • Increased productivity • Increased quality and efficiency • Decrease lost work days • Decrease turnover • Improve morale

  16. Workplace Indicators • Performance deterioration • Quality problems • Absenteeism/turnover • OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration)Logs and Reports • Complaints of fatigue and discomfort

  17. Ergonomic Hazards (Risk Factors) • Awkward working postures • Static postures • Forceful exertions • Repetitive movements • Pace of work • Point pressures • Temperature extremes • Vibration

  18. Non-Work-Related Factors • Physical conditioning • Medical conditions (e.g. diabetes, arthritis) • Pregnancy • Hobbies (hand-intensive or manual handling)

  19. Ergonomics: Control Techniques • Engineering Controls • Work Practices • Administrative Controls • Personal Protective Equipment

  20. Engineering Controls Work station design Work methods Tool design Reducing or spreading force Obtaining better mechanical advantage Ergonomics (Control Techniques)

  21. Workstation Design Guidelines • Reduce static component and allow worker to use optimal posture (midpoint of limbs range of motion) • Avoid forward reaches in excess of 16” • Elbows down close to the body flexor angle around 90 degrees • Sit-Stand preferred but rarely seen • Use gravity do not work against it • Avoid the need for excessive head movement • Avoid compression against hard/non-rounded edges

  22. Work Practices Task Enlargement Work techniques Conditioning ErgonomicsControl Techniques

  23. Administrative Controls Job rotation Maintenance of equipment & environment Rest breaks Increase number of employees Physical conditioning Relief personnel Medical management ErgonomicsControl Techniques

  24. ErgonomicsMedical Management • Accurate injury & illness recording. • Early recognition & reporting. • Conservative treatment. • Medical treatment & rehabilitation for disabling injuries. • Baseline health and workplace assessments. • Medical participation in workplace design.

  25. Personal Protective Equipment BeCareful! Wrist supports Gloves Braces Splints Abdominal belts ErgonomicsControl Techniques

  26. Ideal Computer Workstation Posture

  27. Fatigue Pain & Circulation Problems due to Improper Seating Proper Design of Chair Too long seat pan (>16’’) will cut off circulation to popliteous muscle Sufficient lumbar support Easily adjustable Stable (5 legs) to reduce tipping over Forward sloping seat

  28. ErgonomicsBack Disorders • Approximately 20% of all work-related injuries. • Approximately 25% of annual workers’ compensation payments. • Most frequently injured body part.

  29. Ergonomics (Back Disorders) Manual Lifting Risk Factors • Weight • Location (center of gravity) • Frequency, Duration, Pace • Stability • Hand holds (techniques) • Workplace Layout (obstacles) • Posture (Torso flex, twisting, arms extended) • Environmental Factors (lighting, friction, temperature, humidity, vibration, PPE, personal risk factors)

  30. Bio-Mechanics of Lifting To Prevent Lifting Injuries and back-ache Have your personal strength limits tested (Load to be lifted below 50%) Avoid lifting loads exceeding limits Minimize twisting with load, if required rotate pelvis. Avoid lifting loads exceeding limits Keep load close to body General rule is lift with legs Maximum object weight 25 Kg Men 15 Kg Women

  31. Prevention of Exertion Injuries • Farm worker backache due to awkward stooping posture. • Fatigue of fire fighter due to heat exhaustion/ physical exercise. • Nurse backache due to transferring patients from bed to wheel hair. • Numbness/ tingling in hands of poultry worker due to repetitive hand motions.

  32. Ergonomic Assessment • Following to be assessed • Repeated/ sustained exertions • Forceful exertions • Posture stresses • Localized mechanical stresses • Low temperature • Vibration

  33. Summary Failure to anticipate the capacity & behaviour of work force can result in health & safety problems Ergonomics is the application of: Epidemiology Anthropometry Engineering Design of work for preventing injury/illness To increase productivity

  34. In-Class Activity • Identify occupational health hazards at AM College Rwp for 4th year MBBS students. Identify all possible factors that might influence health, then take one factor and analyze its potential health effects.