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Occupational Health

Occupational Health

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Occupational Health

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  1. Professor Peter Sims Division of Public Health The School of Medicine, University of Papua New Guinea Occupational Health An exploration of a paradigm Work HEALTH DISEASE Peter Sims

  2. Aim • To show how The workplace can be both a threat to the health of the worker and/or an opportunity for health gain Peter Sims

  3. The Objectives • To determine the changing nature of work in human society and its implications for the health of the people • To appreciate that a healthy workforce is more productive,efficient and effective • To consider “The diseases of occupations” • To examine the role of occupational health services Peter Sims

  4. “In the Sweat of Thy Face Shalt Thou Eat Bread,till Thou Return Unto the Ground ” Genesis Ch.2 V19 • Professor Peter Sims • Division of Public Health • The School of Medicine, • University of Papua New Guinea Peter Sims

  5. Human Happiness requires the fulfillment of three key areas In our loves In our friends In our work Peter Sims

  6. Man as a machine Physical strength Repetitious Boredom Long hours Poor reward Expendable The dignity of labour Skills and trades Pride in craftsmanship Apprenticeship Price,shortage,reward Privilege and power The social bonds Ideas Around Work-labour As a Commodity,capital Versus Labour,the Control of the Means of Production Peter Sims

  7. The World of WorkIn the Past • There was work for the unskilled • 8-18 hours per day • 5-6 days a week • 52 weeks a year • It was seasonal, sporadic,day labour • The worker was used and discarded Peter Sims

  8. Before the Industrial Revolution the Farm Labourer worked long hours for small wages The new factories were built in the towns Men and women found low paid work,with long hours and little security Peter Sims

  9. Work in Transition • The rise of union power and the realisation that a stable and well trained labour force was more effective in delivering a quality product, reliably in a competitive world produced stability of employment and often a • “Job for life” Peter Sims

  10. The World of WorkIs Changing • Shorter hours 6-8 hours per day • Shorter weeks 4-5 days • More holidays 46 week year • Shorter working life-30years • Work is more skilled,-more training is needed,-often contract work or part time,-we may do several different jobs in a lifetime and work for many employers Peter Sims

  11. The Modern Office The Home Worker Peter Sims

  12. THE CHALLENGE-WORKER VERSUS OWNER Not just for profit or higher wages but for HEALTH Peter Sims

  13. The Healthy Worker • Is more productive • Has less time off • Is happier at work • Is more likely to stay with that job • Is worth training and investment Peter Sims

  14. Is This Person Fit to Do This Work? • The physical and mental requirements of the task • Physical health of worker- vision, hearing, speech, mobility • Mental health- behaviour, motivation,learning ability • Chronic illness or disability • Work/employment record Peter Sims

  15. Specific requirements Colour vision Height/weight Sex Age Fitness test Iq/personality Specific exclusions Epilepsy Diabetes mellitus Hepatitis carrier HIV +ve Alcohol problem Criminal record Pre-employment Screening Peter Sims

  16. Training Protection Supervision Rewards Facilities Rest and meal breaks Positive health Monitor the environment-dust,radioactivity etc Monitor the individual -blood tests,radiation badges, peak flow rate etc Monitor the workforce -patterns of sickness absence Can We Keep This Person Fit at Work? Peter Sims

  17. Occupational Diseases-some Classical Problems • Bladder cancer Mesothelioma • Asbestosis Silicosis • Contact dermatitis Atopic eczema • Farmer’s lung Occupational asthma Peter Sims

  18. Occupational Hazard Peter Sims

  19. Occupational Hazard Peter Sims

  20. The major cause of Morbidity and Mortality Largely predictable and preventable Minor-a cut finger from a paperclip to Major-death from electrocution Accidents at Work Peter Sims

  21. An Occupational Health Service • Screen new employees • Provide 1st AID training • Monitor the workplace • Review sickness rates • Liaise with gp/hospital • Health promotion (immunisation/smears/ exercise, smoking ) • Advice to management Peter Sims

  22. The Market place needs some rules-Rights and Duties The Worker Security Sickness cover Pension Fair wages Honest labour The Owner/manager Reliable work force Well trained Minimal sickness Productive Fair conditions Peter Sims

  23. Shift work Rest periods Production Demands TeamBuilding Quality standards Trust Management concern The +ve & -ve Stresses of Work Peter Sims

  24. Output versus Stress Output Plateau Decline Optimal Stress Peter Sims

  25. When things go wrong • Strikes………………...Lockouts • Process failures…….....Faulty product • Design failure………....Staff stress • Increased sickness……..Absenteeism • Human error……...……Accidents • System fault…………....Disaster Peter Sims

  26. Women at work Children at work Prisoners Some Special Areas Peter Sims

  27. Unemployment Underemployment • Work for men and women • Work that stimulates and enhances • Work that is fairly rewarded and valued • Work that keeps people healthy Peter Sims

  28. The Mental Health of the Worker • Boredom-tedious and repetitious work • Bullying-discrimination and harassment • Alcohol-poor performance • Absenteeism Peter Sims

  29. Impaired Handicapped Disabled Debarred The Disabled Worker Peter Sims

  30. Retraining Rehabilitation Retirement Redundancy Peter Sims

  31. A Workplace Check list • The Work Process-what is being done • The Work force-who is doing it • The hazards-what can go wrong • The record-Accident and illness • The Services-First aid, Occupational Health • The ambience-Men, Management,Machines Peter Sims

  32. Conclusions • Work is an important part of all our lives • Work can endanger health or enhance it • Many problems can be minimized or entirely prevented from existing knowledge • Occupational Health Services can be the key to worker safety and wellbeing Peter Sims

  33. Bernardino Ramazzini 1633-1714 Professor of Medicine at Padua “Medici munus plebios curantis est interrogare quas artes exerceant” “In dealing with the workman the doctor must think of the dangerous trades ” Peter Sims