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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

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  1. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Erestain, Emmanuel Facton, Rosabelle T. Fang, Mark David G.

  2. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH A multidisciplinary activity aiming at: protection and promotion of the health of workers by preventing and controlling occupational diseases and accidents by eliminating occupational factors and conditions hazardous to health and safety at work enhancement of physical, mental and social well-being of workers and support for the development and maintenance of their working capacity

  3. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH • WHO Health for All principles and ILO Conventions on Occupational Safety and Health (No. 155) and on Occupational Health Services (No. 161) • Every worker has the right of access to occupational health and safety services, irrespective of the sector of the economy, size of the company, or type of assignment and occupation.

  4. Scope of Occupational Health • Recognition of environmental factors or stresses associated with work and their effects on man and his well being • Evaluate the magnitude of these stresses in terms of ability to impair well-being • Prescription of methods to control or reduce such stresses

  5. Importance of Occupational Health • Millions are injured and hundreds of thousands death every year in occupational accidents. • The formal workforce constitutes on average 50-60% of a country’s total population. • The level of occupational health and safety, the socioeconomic development of the country and the quality of life and well-being of working people are closely linked with each other.

  6. WORK ENVIRONMENT Recognition of occupational hazards: • Safety hazards • Health hazards

  7. Safety Hazards • Slipping/tripping hazards • Fire and explosion hazards • Work at height • Materials falling from height • Workplace violence

  8. Health Hazards • Chemical hazards • Physical hazards • Biological hazards • Ergonomic hazards

  9. CHEMICAL HAZARDS • Harmful chemical compounds in the form of solids, liquids, gases. • exert toxic effects by inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.

  10. CHEMICAL HAZARDS • Dusts • Organic - Sugar cane dust (Bagasosis) • Inorganic – Asbestos, silica, lead, mercury • Gas • Natural – CO2 • Asphyxiants - Nitrogen, methane, hydrogen, CO, H2S • Irritant gases - SO2, formaldehyde, Nitrogen fumes

  11. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS • Bacteria • Viruses • Fungi

  12. Biological hazards • Occupational infections • TB • Brucellosis • Cattle, sheep, pigs • Anthrax • Viral hepatitis B and C • AIDS

  13. PHYSICAL HAZARDS • Include: • Temperature • Excessive noise • Vibration • Radiation

  14. PHYSICAL HAZARDS • Thermal stress • Vascular injury • Increased muscle tone • Hypothermia/heat stroke • Prevention • Gradual exposure leading to acclimatization • Engineering control (proper insulation and ventilation)

  15. PHYSICAL HAZARDS • Noise and Vibration • Noise induced hearing loss • 85 db for prolonged period • Related to amount, frequency and duration of exposure • Prevention • Design and maintenance of machinery • Workshift/work schedule • Protective equipment

  16. ERGONOMIC HAZARDS - workplace conditions that pose the risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system of the worker • Excessive physical work • Contributing factors • Awkward postures • Repetitive motions • Forceful exertions

  17. Occupational diseases • Are illnesses caused by or precipitated by factors inherent in the employee’s nature of work and working conditions

  18. Occupational History • Descriptions of all jobs held • Types of tasks performed • Materials exposed to, amount, date of exposure • Personal protective equipment used • Similar health complaints in other workers • Previous medications, exams, pre-employment data

  19. Characteristics of occupational diseases • The clinical and pathological presentation is identical to that of non-occupational diseases • May occur after the termination of exposure • The clinical manifestations are related to dose and timing of exposure • Occupational factors can work in combination with non-occupational factors to produce disease

  20. Evidence of work-related diagnosis • Symptoms compatible with exposure • Diagnostic physical signs • Similar problems in other workers • Complaint related to time • Known exposure • Scientific plausibility • Biologic confirmation • Lack of non-occupational cause

  21. Number and types of occupational diseases

  22. Occupational health problems are not only problems of individual workers’ health, but they are also problems relating to the healthiness and safety of work and the work environment, the organization of work and the management philosophy of the enterprise and workplace.

  23. Occupational safety and accident prevention

  24. Levels of Prevention • Primary – promotion of health • Information dissemination • Training, research and interventions on workplace improvements • Secondary – for early detection and prompt and effective intervention to correct illnesses and accidents • Tertiary – to reduce impairments and disabilities and promote patient’s adjustment to irremediable conditions

  25. Controlling Hazards • Identify • Evaluate • Control • Educate

  26. 1. Engineering Control • Design specification • Substitution, isolation, ventilation 2. . Administrative control • Work rotation • Work schedule / workshift • Proper waste disposal/good housekeeping • Informed • Adequate sanitary facilities 3. Personal Protective Equipment • Determine the need • Approved design and construction • Maintenace • No one should be subjected or exposed to hazarda without proper protection

  27. Key strategies The key strategy principles of international and national occupational health and safety policies are: • avoidance of hazards (primary prevention) • safe technology • optimization of working conditions • integration of production and health and safety activities • government’s responsibility, authority and competence in the development and control of working conditions • primary responsibility of the employer and entrepreneur for health and safety at the workplace • recognition of employees’ own interest in occupational health and safety • cooperation and collaboration on an equal basis by employers and workers • right to participate in decisions concerning one’s own work • right to know and principle of transparency • continuous follow-up and development of occupational health and safety. • Implementation of such principles requires appropriate legal provisions, administrative enforcement and service systems for occupational safety and health and occupational health services.

  28. Duties of Occupational Health Physician • Organize, administer and maintain an occupational health service program • Health Protection • Health Promotion • Health Surveillance • Monitor work environment • Provide medical and surgical care • Maintain and analyze medical records

  29. References: • WHO • http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/globstrategy/en/index5.html

  30. Thank you!