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Evidence-Based Public Health Practice: Using Research and Data to Improve Your Programs Week 1, Part 2: Data Sources PowerPoint Presentation
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Evidence-Based Public Health Practice: Using Research and Data to Improve Your Programs Week 1, Part 2: Data Sources

Evidence-Based Public Health Practice: Using Research and Data to Improve Your Programs Week 1, Part 2: Data Sources

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Evidence-Based Public Health Practice: Using Research and Data to Improve Your Programs Week 1, Part 2: Data Sources

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  1. Evidence-Based Public Health Practice: Using Research and Data to Improve Your ProgramsWeek 1, Part 2: Data Sources Helena VonVille Library Director University of Texas School of Public Health This project has been funded in part with Federal funds from the National Library of Medicine National lnstitutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No NO1-LM-6-3505.

  2. Week 1, Part 2: Agenda • Week 1, Part 2 – Data Sources • Types of data sources • Working with data sources • How to access • How to use • How to display • Using data sources for community assessments • Healthy People 2010

  3. Step 2: Quantify the Issue • Public Health Surveillance • “..continuous and systematic process of collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of descriptive information for monitoring health problems.”1 • “…for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health.”2 • 1Buehler, J.W. (1998). Surveillance. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology (3rd ed., 435-57). Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott-Raven. • 2 Guidelines Working Group. (2001). Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. MMWR 50(RR13):1-35. Retrieved March 2, 2008 from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5013a1.htm

  4. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Vital Statistics • Reportable diseases • Screening surveys • Disease registries • Morbidity surveys • Hospital Data • Focus groups • Interviews • Other

  5. Step 2: Quantify the Issue Data Sources • National Data from Federal Agencies • State government agencies • Non-profit organizations • Colleges and universities • Other research organizations • National Center for Education Statistics • National Center for Health Statistics • Bureau of Labor Statistics • Census Bureau • FBI • Housing & Urban Development • EPA • SAMHSA • NCI • Medicare/Medicaid

  6. Step 2: Quantify the IssueInformation Systems • Systems designed to store, organize, and retrieve data • Standards based in some but not all cases • Internet protocols • PHIN (Public Health Information Network) • National initiative, improve capacity of PH to use and exchange information electronically • Electronic medical records • Vendor specific so transfer between systems can be difficult

  7. Step 2: Quantify the Issue Where do we stand? • What do we track well? • Births & deaths • Infectious disease • Cancer • Population • What don’t we track well? • Chronic diseases • Linking certain types of conditions • Asthma & environment

  8. Step 2: Quantify the Issue Confidentiality • Public data • County level typically • Census Bureau exceptions • Hospital discharge data • IRB approval from state & home institution • TX charges for the data • Surveys that you instigate • IRB approval from your institution?

  9. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Vital Statistics • Birth and death statistics • Reported to CDC & compiled regularly • Limitations to mortality data • Chronic illnesses • Multiple cases of death • Lack of standardization of diagnosis criteria • Stigmas attached to certain diseases • Completeness of records • Changes in ICD codes over time

  10. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Vital Statistics (cont’d) • Limitations to birth data • Birth certificates have changed over time • Ex: 1993-1994 birth data • http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/charting/caveats.htm • Incomplete birth certificates • Midwives in south Texas? • Self-reported data • Alcohol/smoking during pregnancy

  11. Vital Statistics • Reportable diseases • Lists of notifiable diseases at http://www.cdc.gov/epo/dphsi/phs/infdis.htm • Limitations • Changes throughout the years • Chlamydia • Data only as good as reporting • Medical attention not always sought

  12. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Registries • Tracks all occurrences of type of disease or condition or category of disease or condition • Birth defects • Cancer • SEER • Limitation • Cooperation of agencies and medical facilities as well as adequate funding.

  13. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Screening surveys • Ad hoc basis • Health fairs (community or employer-based) • Limitations • Consistency of data gathering • Permission for data use

  14. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Morbidity Surveys • Sample data • National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, National Health Interview Survey, BRFSS, YRBSS, National Survey on Drug Use & Health

  15. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Hospital Discharge Data • Track chronic conditions that lead to hospital stays without mortality • Strokes, asthma, heart attacks, etc. • Limitations • Purchase from the state • http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/thcic/hospitals/HospitalData.shtm • Confidentiality issues

  16. Step 2: Quantify the IssueTypes of Data Sources • Volunteer Providers • Can be just-in-time for non-notifiable diseases • “Task force” oriented, i.e. system created to meet a specific need during a specific time Other • Linked records • Birth/infant death

  17. Step 2: Quantify the IssueSources Consulted • Buehler, J.W. (1998). Surveillance. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology (3rd ed., 435-57). Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott-Raven. • Friis, R.H. and Sellers, T.A. (2009). Sources of Data for Use in Epidemiology. Epidemiology for Public Health Practice. (4th ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett.

  18. Step 2: Quantify the IssueHow to Access Data Sources • CHARTing Health Information for Texas • Links to county level data covering a broad variety of data http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/charting

  19. Step 2: Quantify the Issue CHARTing: Data for Cause of Illness

  20. Step 2: Quantify the Issue CHARTing: Data for Cause of Illness

  21. Step 2: Quantify the Issue CHARTing: Mortality Data • Big 3 for mortality • CDC Wonder • Texas Health Data: Death Data • TDSHS • VitalWeb • All cover underlying (i.e. single) cause • Multiple cause data difficult to get • HP2010 target for diabetes mortality • All-cause mortality

  22. Step 2: Quantify the Issue CHARTing: Birth Data • Big 3 birth data sources • CDC Wonder • Texas Health Data: Birth Data • TDSHS • VitalWeb • Other types of data • Birth defects • Fetal mortality • Linked birth/death data

  23. Step 2: Quantify the Issue HP2010 Workbook • Excel Spreadsheet (1997-2003 format) • Includes select focus areas (out of 28) from select HP 2010 objectives (out of 467) • Has data for HP2010 target, US, & Texas • Links to source of county-level data

  24. Step 2: Quantify the Issue HP2010 Workbook-- Benefits • Create an overview of county health issues • Links to HP2010 objectives information • Help set realistic program goals • Quickly determine information gaps • Sources of comparison • US Texas County

  25. Step 2: Quantify the Issue HP2010 Workbook • Table of Contents • About Your County • Census Links and Tables • Neighborhood Demographics • Access to Health Care • Cancer • Diabetes • Environmental Health • Heart Disease and Stroke

  26. Step 2: Quantify the Issue HP2010 Workbook • Table of Contents (cont’d) • HIV • Immunization and Disease • Injury & Violence Prevention • Mental Health and Disorders • Nutrition & Overweight • Occupational Safety &Health • Oral Health • Sexually Transmitted Disease • Substance Abuse • Tobacco Use

  27. Questions? http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/charting