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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:The Imperial Vision Section 2:The Spanish-American War Section 3:New American Diplomacy Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. How Are Empires Built? • International economic and military competition convinced the United States it must become a world power. In the late 1800s, the United States increased its trade and military presence in East Asia and Latin America, and by the early 1900s, it had created an American empire. • Why do you think the United States focused on East Asia and Latin America? • What factors make a nation a world power? Chapter Intro

  4. Chapter Timeline

  5. Chapter Timeline

  6. The Imperial Vision Why did the United States seek to become an imperialist power? Chapter Intro 1

  7. The Spanish-American War Was sympathy for the Cuban people or economic expansion the major reason why the United States declared war on Spain? Chapter Intro 2

  8. New American Diplomacy Why did the United States use diplomacy to achieve its economic objectives in Asia? Chapter Intro 3

  9. Chapter Preview-End

  10. Big Ideas Economics and SocietyIn the late 1800s, many Americans wanted the United States to expand its military and economic power overseas. Section 1-Main Idea

  11. Content Vocabulary • imperialism • protectorate Academic Vocabulary • expansion • conference Section 1-Key Terms

  12. People and Events to Identify • Anglo-Saxonism • Matthew C. Perry • Queen Liliuokalani • Pan-Americanism Section 1-Key Terms

  13. A B Do you agree that strong nations should take advantage of weaker nations? A. Agree B. Disagree Section 1-Polling Question

  14. Building Support for Imperialism A desire for world markets and belief in the superiority of Anglo-Saxon culture led the United States to assert itself as a world power. Section 1

  15. Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) • Beginning in the 1880s, economic and military competition from other nations, as well as a growing feeling of cultural superiority, convinced many Americans that the United States should become a world power. • Several European nations were already expanding overseas, a development known as the New Imperialism. Section 1

  16. Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) • Europeans expanded their power overseas for many reasons: • Factories depended on raw materials from all over the world. • By the late 1800s, most industrialized countries had placed high tariffs against each other. • The growth of investment opportunities in Western Europe had slowed. Section 1

  17. Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) • To protect their investments, European nations began exerting control over those territories. • Some areas became colonies, while others became protectorates. • The U.S. noticed the expansion of European powers overseas and concluded that the nation needed new overseas markets to keep its economy strong. Exports and Imports, 1865–1900 Section 1

  18. Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) • In addition to economic concerns, many supporters of Social Darwinism argued that nations competed with each other politically, economically, and militarily, and that only the strongest would survive. • John Fiske’s ideas, known as Anglo-Saxonism, were linked to the idea of Manifest Destiny. Section 1

  19. Building Support for Imperialism (cont.) • As Americans became increasingly willing to risk war to defend American interests overseas, support for building a large modern navy began to grow. • Captain Alfred T. Mahan published his lectures in a book called The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660–1783, which helped build public support for a big navy. Section 1

  20. A B C D Josiah Strong linked Anglo-Saxonism to which idea in order to gain the support of Americans? A.Manifest Destiny B.Imperialism C.Missionary work D.Nationalism Section 1

  21. American Expansion in the Pacific The desire for new markets led to trade with Japan and the annexation of Hawaii. Section 1

  22. American Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) • In 1852, after receiving several petitions from Congress, President Millard Fillmore decided to force Japan to trade with the United States. • He ordered Commodore Matthew C. Perry to take a naval expedition to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty. Section 1

  23. American Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) • Realizing that they could not resist modern Western technology and weapons, the Japanese agreed to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa. • By the 1890s, the Japanese had a powerful navy and had begun building their own empire in Asia. Section 1

  24. American Expansion in the Pacific (cont.) • Queen Liliuokalani disliked the influence that American settlers had gained in Hawaii, so she tried to impose a new constitution reasserting her authority. • A group of planters, supported by the U.S. marines, overthrew her monarchy and in 1891, she reluctantly stepped down. • President Cleveland strongly opposed imperialism, so the United States annexed Hawaii once he was out of office. Section 1

  25. A B C D After the recession struck Hawaii in 1872, the U.S. signed a treaty exempting Hawaii from tariffs on which product? A.Pineapples B.Sugar C.Coconut D.Plants Section 1

  26. Diplomacy in Latin America The United States worked to increase trade with Latin America. Section 1

  27. Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.) • American business leaders and government officials wanted to increase the sale of American products in Latin America. • James G. Blaine proposed that the United States invite the Latin American nations to a conference to discuss ways in which the American nations could work together to support peace and increase trade. • This idea became known as Pan-Americanism. Section 1

  28. Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.) • Although the Latin American delegates rejected Blaine’s ideas, they did create an organization that worked to promote cooperation among the nations of the Western Hemisphere—the Commercial Bureau of the American Republic. • Today this organization is called the Organization of American States (OAS). Section 1

  29. A B C D E Which of the following goals did James G. Blaine wish to accomplish at the conference? A.Creation of a customs union B.Creation of a system to work out disputes peacefully C.Creation of a treaty that limited European trade D.A and B E. B and C Section 1

  30. Section 1-End

  31. Big Ideas Trade, War, and MigrationThe United States defeated Spain in a war, acquired new overseas territories, and became an imperial power. Section 2-Main Idea

  32. Content Vocabulary • yellow journalism • autonomy • jingoism Academic Vocabulary • intervene • volunteer Section 2-Key Terms

  33. People and Events to Identify • José Martí • William Randolph Hearst • Joseph Pulitzer • Emilio Aguinaldo • Platt Amendment • Foraker Act Section 2-Key Terms

  34. A B Do you think that the United States should grant Puerto Rico their independence? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  35. The Coming of War In support of the Cuban rebellion and in retaliation for the loss of the USS Maine, the United States declared war on Spain. Section 2

  36. The Coming of War (cont.) • In 1868, Cuban rebels declared independence and launched a guerrilla war against Spanish authorities. • The rebellion collapsed a decade later, and many Cuban rebels fled to the U.S. • One of the exiled leaders, José Martí, launched a rebellion in February 1895. • Marti died, but the Republic of Cuba was established in September 1895. U.S. Investment in Cuba, 1897 Section 2

  37. The Coming of War (cont.) • Many Americans supported the rebels because of the sensational stories published in The Journal, owned by William Randolph Hearst, and The World, owned byJoseph Pulitzer. • This kind of writing came to be known as yellow journalism. Section 2

  38. The Coming of War (cont.) • President William McKinley made it clear that if the war did not end soon, the United States would have to intervene. • Spain removed General Valeriano Weyler from power and offered the Cubans autonomy, but only if Cuba remained part of the Spanish empire. • The Cubans refused to negotiate. The Spanish-American War Section 2

  39. The Coming of War (cont.) • On the evening of February 15, 1898, while the Maine sat in Havana Harbor, it exploded. • No one is sure why this happened, but Americans believed the Spanish did it. • Within the Republican Party, jingoism was very strong, so the president faced pressure to go to war. The Battle for the Philippines Section 2

  40. The Coming of War (cont.) • On April 11, 1898, McKinley asked Congress to authorize the use of force. • On April 19, Congress proclaimed Cuba independent, demanded that Spain withdraw from the island, and authorized the use of force. • In response to the demands of the United States, Spain declared war. Section 2

  41. A B C D The United States had not been at war with another nation in how many years? A.10 B.30 C.50 D.70 Section 2

  42. A War on Two Fronts The United States fought and defeated Spain in both the Caribbean and the Pacific. Section 2

  43. A War on Two Fronts (cont.) • Commodore George Dewey was ordered to attack the Spanish fleet based in the Philippines. • His quick victory took McKinley and his advisers by surprise. • While waiting for the American troops to arrive, Dewey contacted Emilio Aguinaldo—a Filipino revolutionary. Section 2

  44. A War on Two Fronts (cont.) • While the rebels took control of most of the islands, American troops seized the Philippine capital of Manila. • Neither the Spanish nor Americans were prepared for war in Cuba. • American military planners wanted to drive the Spanish fleet out of Santiago Harbor and into battle with the American fleet waiting nearby. Section 2

  45. A War on Two Fronts (cont.) • While one group of soldiers attacked San Juan Hill, the Rough Riders, led by Theodore Roosevelt and accompanied by the all-black 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments, attacked Kettle Hill. • The plan worked, and the United States took control of Santiago and Puerto Rico. Section 2

  46. A B C D Which percentage of the American troops fighting in Cuba were African American? A.15% B.25% C.45% D.50% Section 2

  47. An American Empire In defeating Spain, the United States acquired an overseas empire. Section 2

  48. An American Empire (cont.) • When deciding whether or not to annex the Philippines, the United States faced a difficult choice—remain true to its republican ideals or become an imperial power that ruled a foreign country without the consent of its people. • President McKinley ultimately decided to annex the islands. • On December 10, 1898, the U.S. and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. Section 2

  49. An American Empire (cont.) • Although the United States had promised to grant Cuba its independence, President McKinley added the Platt Amendment to their Constitution. • This amendment made Cuba an American protectorate, and remained in effect until 1934. Section 2

  50. An American Empire (cont.) • In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act, establishing a civil government in Puerto Rico. • The debate over Puerto Rico’s status continues today. Section 2