Chapter 8 LANGUAGE, LITERARCY, AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION
Reading one Reading 2 Writing Skills Assignment
Reading One Bilingual Education in the United States
Reading One • Warm-up Discussion • Predict the Main Ideas • Reading Activities • Language Points • Supplementary Listening and discussion
Warm-up — Discussion How many languages can people around you speak? • Why does he or she can speak more than one language? • What does people call the person who can speak more than one language? • Do you know the difference between second language and foreign language?
Warm-up • In China, what language do most teachers speak when they teach? • What kind of education can be called Bilingual education? Is it existing in China? • Do you know in what conditions will school offer bilingual education?
Predict Ideas Definition(what) Bilingual Education in the U.S. Effective -ness Development (when) Implement (How )
Reading Activities • Survey and revise your prediction • Work out the outline of the text • Find out features of BE in the U.S. • Four BE models and which model is most effective? • Reasons for or against BE
Reading Activities What is B.E.?(1) Federal laws on B.E.(2) Outline B.E. models.(3-7) Controversy over B.E.(8-11)
Reading Activities Features of B.E. in U.S. Target students Purpose Language of Instruction Fund Source Immigrant students Equal Educational opportunities English and SS’native language federal government
General introduction Specific description topic sentence listing One of the …is called… Another kind of…is called… Two-way BE is a program… Finally, there is … The ways in which … Vary greatly (Para 2 last sentence) Reading Activities Logical organization—describe models
a waste of money & unsuccessful Critics favorable opinions NL’s positive role For nonnative SS Law in CA. BE is illegal States-waiting -proposing similar law Controversy continues Reading Activities Controversy over BE in US
grammar expressions Language Study Words and expressions Grammatical structures
Words and Expressions hostn. a person who receives and entertains one or more other people as guests a person, place or organization that provides the necessary space, equipment,etc. for a special event. the host country of Olympics Compare of a television program, etc. Host vs. hostess Host vs. guest
welcome a large number of [+of] we are faced with a host of difficulties. Host vt. (Infml) to act as a host of (a party, friendly meeting, TV show, etc.) China will host the Olympic Games in 2008.
Let’s Practice Wang xiaya is the hostess for a quiz show program. 洛杉矶和莫斯科都主办过奥运会。 Los Angeles and Moscow have hosted the Olympic Games. 直到宴会结束我们才见到主人。 We didn't see the host till the end of the party. 王小丫是一个智力答题节目的主持人。
Other than except; apart from The boy can do nothing other than cry. You can’t get there other than by boat. anything but I have never known him behave other than selfish.
implement v. decisions implement policies plans suggestions carry out; put into effect The committee’s decisions will be implemented immediately.
vary v. be different in size, volume, strength, etc.[in ] • These fish vary in weight from 1 kilo to 5 kilos. to change, esp. continually [from] • Prices of watermelon vary greatly with the seasons. • His mood varied from optimism to extreme depression.
variety n. quality of not being the same, or not being the same at all times We all need variety in our diet. Sort A wide variety of patterns to choose from a variety of: many kinds of There are a great variety of fish in the sea.
Various adj. of (many) different kinds For various reasons, I’d prefer not to meet him. Several, a number of (no comp. 无比较级) Various people said they’d seen the accident.
Let’s practice 学生们的年龄从15岁到50岁不等。 The students vary in age from 15 to 50. 这位学生在这部戏中不时地改变一下角色。 The student varies his role in this play from time to time.
人生变化多端，丰富多彩。 life is full of change and variety The car models on exhibition this year are many and various. 和谈因为种种原因一再延期。 The peace talk is put off once and again for a variety of reasons 今年参展的车型各式各样。
maintain & maintenance Maintain v. cause to continue; keep in existence at the same level, standard, etc. (维持) Part of his job is to maintain good relations with our suppliers. keep in good condition or working order（维修） As one of the oldest architectures in China, Siheyuan should be well maintained.
assert as true（主张） The man maintained his innocence throughout the trial. support financially (供养) The young man can earn enough to maintain a family in comfort. Maintenance n.维护, 保持, 生活费用 He has to pay maintenance to his ex-wife.
Let’s practice 中国希望和世界各国维持良好的关系。 The school is maintained by a charity. China hope to maintain good relations with other countries in the world. 这位女孩子坚持她清白无辜。 The girl maintained her innocence./that she was innocent. 这个学校靠一个慈善机构维持。
criticize v. critical adj. critic n. (person) criticism n. (words)
critic & critical critic n. a person who gives judgments about the good and bad qualities of something, esp. art, music, films, etc. She is the music critic for “the times”. Critical a. of or at a crisis; decisive; crucial We are at a critical time in our history. looking for faults爱挑剔的 Why are you always so critical?
oppose v. to express strong disapproval of or disagreement with oppose＋ doing/n. The president opposes giving military aid to this country. be opposed to ＋doing The students are strongly opposed to postponing the celebration.
oppose＋ doing sth, be opposed to ＋doing sth • I am opposed __ your going there alone. • A. against B. for C. of D. to • 考点: Oppose(V.) doing sth, • Be opposed (adj.)to sb. /sth.
opposition n. oppose v. opposite adj. Propose v. Man proposes and God disposes. dispose v. Don’t forget these
Man proposes, God disposes.这个说法最早见于14世纪，起初以 “If man proposes evil, God disposes of it.” 的形式出现, 意思是上帝会阻止想要为恶的人。这里的God, 既可以指上帝, 又可以指天意。 就像我们常说的“尽人事, 听天命”、“谋事在人，成事在天”一样, 尽力而为之后, 还要顺从自然的规律。 毕竟，人类是自然的一部分, 凡事皆不可强求， 与自然的和谐是人类的生存之本。e.g. A: Bob, how about tomorrow’s driving test？Sure to pass，huh？B: I don’t know. I’ve done enough, I’d say. Anyway, man proposes, God disposes. I am praying for good luck.
Man proposes, God disposes. • Man's schemes are inferior to those made by heaven .
Propose & Proposal Propose v. offer or put forward for consideration; suggest I propose delaying our decision until the next meeting. I propose that we delay our decision until the next meeting. Proposal n.
put forward for office, membership of a club, etc.; nominate We propose him for membership of the society. intend I propose to go to Paris on Saturday. suggest or offer marriage He was trying to decide whether he should propose to her.
Propose， proposal • 主句中若有 require , demand, suggest, insist, order, prefer, propose, recommend , request 等动词， 其后的that-分句中应使用be-型虚拟式， 即动次原形或should +动词原形。 • 主句中若有requirement, demand, suggestion, order, preference, proposal, decision, instruction, resolution 等名词，其后的 that-分句中应使用be-型虚拟式，即动词原形或should+动词原形。
Let’s practice 教育专家们提议学校和家长为孩子减负。 经过认真考虑，她接受了他的求婚。 代表团打算提前结束在日本的访问。 Education experts propose that school and parents reduce students’ workload. After a careful consideration, she accepted his proposal. The delegation propose to end it’s visit earlier in Japan.
Other expressions • point out: to direct attention to • I must point out that further delay would be unwise. • serve as: be good enough or suitable for • This incident serves as a reminder of how dangerous the nuclear bombs really are. • in favor of: in support of sb./sth. (oppose) • he was in favor of votes for women.
in addition: as well; besides • In addition, there was a crop failure in many provinces. • In addition to: as well as • In addition to giving a general introduction to computers, the course also provides practical experience.
Let’s practice Directions : Complete the sentences with the following phrases. Change its form when it is necessary in addition serve as in favor of point out
The professor ________ that fewer students want to do research now. points out His car, in this case, can also _______ a bedroom. serve as The traffic there is always busy, _________ , it rains nearly every day. in addition in favor of I am _________stopping work now.
Experiments show that daydreaming significantly __________to intellectual growth.A. attributes C. helpsB. distributes D. contributes 答案：D解析：固定搭配，contribute to：捐献，对…有利；attribute to：归因于；
_________English, he has to study a second foreign language.A. In addition to C. ExceptB. Beside D. Except for答案：A 解析：in addition to：加之，又，除…之外；except：除…之外（在整体中除去一部分），它不包括提到的； e.g. I attended classes every day except Saturday and Sunday. except for整体…除了某一点以外；e.g. The composition is well written except for a few spelling errors. beside是“在……旁边”的意思；
In addition to， In addition • in addition to和in addition都是很常见很常用的短语，都有“除了、还有”的意思，但它们的用法是完全不同的，我们就来区分一下。 • In addition to整个词组相当于一个介词，所以to的后面要接宾语。例如: • In addition to native plants, this garden contains numerous trees and flowers from overseas. • 除了当地的植物之外，这座花园还有无数来自海外的花草树木。 • In addition相当于副词，通常放在从句的句首，后面接完整的句子。例如： • This garden has the best collection of native plants. In addition, it contains numerous trees and flowers from overseas. • 这座花园有当地植物的最佳珍藏。另外，它还有无数来自海外的花草树木。 • 许多词可以和它替换，如：additionally，furthermore，besides。
Grammatical Structures (1) While struggling to learn English, they lose valuable time …and science.(Para.7) When/while ＋ Adverbial clause While/when + adverbial phrase Follow the principle if the subject of an adverbial clause introduced by when/ while is the same with that of the main clause, then the A.C. can be simplified into A.F.
STEPS TO FOLLOW Omit the subject of A.C. Change its verb into the form of present participle If its verb is any form of Be(am is are), then it is often omitted after it was changed into being.
Look at this model when I am rich, I will buy a car. being When being rich, I will buy a car. When rich, I will buy a car.
Learn more about this • If the subject of an adverbial clause introduced by if/unless/once(al)though is the same with that of the main clause, meanwhile the subject is followed by “be+adj./past participle”, then this adverbial clause can be simplified into adverbial phrase.Moreover,be can be omitted after it is changed into being.