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  1. WARM UPS and NOTES • Set up about 10 pages for warm ups for the rest of this six weeks. • We will start having daily warm ups to be completed within the first 5 minutes of class • Also daily aquarium tasks should be completed within those first 5 minutes.

  2. Warm-Ups 10/7/14 • Remember to write both the questions & answers • What does Nekton mean? Plankton? Benthic? *hint use your ecology notes • If you were an organism who preferred low salinity (0.5ppt- 15.0ppt) where would you be found? A. At the mouth of a river C. In a bay near the gulf B. In a bay far away from the gulf D. In the Gulf of Mexico • Write down the following water parameters of your tank: Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, pH, and Salinity

  3. Unit IV Notes- Marine Ecology

  4. I. Energy

  5. A. Matter and Energy • Life requires both matter and energy to exist. • Matter that makes up living organisms consists of about 13 of 118 known elements. • Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous are four major elements.

  6. Law of conservation • Energy/Mass cannot be created nor destroyed; it can only be changed from one form to another.

  7. B. Autotrophy and Heterotrophy • Most marine organisms get their energy directly or indirectly from the sun. • Autotrophy- process of self-feeding by creating rich compounds called carbohydrates (i.e. plants, algae, phytoplankton). • Heterotrophy- process of getting energy and matter by consuming other organisms (i.e. zooplankton, fish, etc.)

  8. C. Respiration • Both autotrophs and heterotrophs must convert carbohydrates into useable energy. • Done through cellular respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20 + ENERGY

  9. D. Photosynthesis • Process of using light energy to create carbohydrates from inorganic compounds. 6CO2 + 6H20 + LIGHT ENERGY → C6H12O6 + 6O2

  10. E. Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration • Aerobic respiration- uses oxygen • Anaerobic respiration- used by organisms in environment without oxygen.

  11. F. Chemosynthesis • Process of using chemicals to create energy-rich organic compounds. • Similar to photosynthesis because it produces carbohydrates. • Differs because it does not use sunlight as energy source, but chemical energy in inorganic compounds. • Not as efficient as photosynthesis. • Used by bacteria that live on the ocean floor.

  12. II. Primary Production • This is the base of an ecosystem. • In the ocean there are several producers, including: • Plants • Algae • Plankton

  13. The land is only slightly more productive than the ocean. • Marine plants and algae are responsible for producing a fair amount of dissolved oxygen in the ocean. • However, a very important group of primary producers are the plankton.

  14. Plankton • A wide variety of organisms that share a habitat and lifestyle • Not one species, but include many species from virtually every major group of organisms found in the sea. • They can be autotrophic or heterotrophic.

  15. Types of Plankton

  16. Phytoplankton • Account for 92-96% of oceans primary productivity • These are the only plankton that are producers (they can undergo photosynthesis). • Examples: Diatoms and Dinoflagellates

  17. Zooplankton • Primary and Secondary consumers that feed on phytoplankton and other heterotrophic plankton.

  18. Largest Plankton in the sea is the Mola Mola or Ocean Sunfish (it is also the largest bony fish).

  19. Limiting Factors • Physical or Biological necessities that restrict survival of primary producers. • Too much or too little will reduce population of an organism.

  20. 1. Eutrophication • Pollution that results from excess nutrients in the ocean. • Algae and plants overgrow due to presence of fertilizers and reduce the amount of nutrients available to plankton.

  21. 2. Plankton bloom • Can deplete nutrients available for plants, algae and other plankton.

  22. 3. Sunlight • All primary producers require sunlight to undergo photosynthesis. • The amount of sunlight in the ocean varies due to depth, season and/or water clarity.

  23. Warm-Ups 10-8-14 • What is each piece of equipment called and used for? B A C D

  24. III. Food Webs/Chains

  25. Trophic Levels • Representation of how energy transfers from one level to the next.

  26. Primary Producers • Base • Autotrophs • Examples: Algae, Plants and Plankton

  27. Primary Consumers • Heterotrophs • Herbivores • Most important primary consumer- Zooplankton

  28. Secondary Consumers • Feed Primarily on Zooplankton • Carnivores

  29. Decomposers • Last level • Bacteria and Fungi

  30. Energy Flow • Only about 10% of energy passes from one level to the next. • Other 90% is used for work (repair, reproduction, etc).

  31. Food Webs • Represents the flow of energy through consumption in nature. • Shows organisms have different choices of prey and eat across a trophic pyramids theoretical levels (a primary consumer can also be a secondary consumer).

  32. Biological Magnification (Biomagnification) • Small concentrations are increased as they go up a food chain.

  33. Warm Up 10-9-14Turn in yesterday’s work during this time as well. • The term that refers to the buildup of toxins/ poisons in the food web is called _____________. • Autotrophs that use _______ to make food are called chemosynthetic, while autotrophs that use sunlight to make food are called _____________. • The most important primary consumers are ___________.

  34. Warm Up 10-10-14 • Final Day to turn in the Arctic Food Web from Wednesday. • Begin working on aquariums. • Water Log # 3

  35. Water Log # 3 (page 11) • Team Members present • Date • Fill in Water Chemistry Table (page 6) • Add to Aquarium Chemistry Graph (Page 7) • Narrative of which team mates were responsible for which tasks • Complete Maintenance Check off Sheet and attach to aquarium.

  36. Biogeochemical Cycles • Carbon-Oxygen Cycle • Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration • Water Cycle • Evaporation, Precipitation & Run-Off • Nitrogen Cycle • Ammonia, Nitrosomonans, Nitrite, Nitrobacter & Nitrate

  37. IV. Marine Lifestyles • Plankton • Group of plants (phytoplankton) and animal (zooplankton) that exist adrift in ocean currents • Neuston • Plankton that float at the surface (i.e.: Portuguese man-of-war)

  38. Nekton • What you visualize when you think of marine organisms • Swim- small invertebrates to large whales

  39. Benthos • Live on or in the bottom • Motile or sessile

  40. 3 groups • Epifauna • Animals that live on the sea floor (crabs) • Epiflora • Plants that live on the sea floor (sea grasses) • Infauna • Partially or completely buried in the sea floor (clams, sand dollars, tubeworms)

  41. Deposit or Suspension Feeders • Deposit- Feed off detritus (loose organic and inorganic matter) drifting down from above • Suspension- Filter particles (mostly plankton) suspended in water for food.

  42. V. Ocean Zones • Based on Light and Location

  43. Division by Light • Photic Layer (sunlight layer) • 2 areas • 1. Euphotic Zone (eu= good) • Goes to about 660’. • Enough light for photosynthesis • Home to a variety of marine species • Relatively warm temperatures • 2. Dysphotic Zone (dys= difficult) • Nicknamed “Twilight Zone” • Goes to about 3300’ • Insufficient light for photosynthesis • Animals here must be able to handle cold temperatures, higher pressures, and darkness

  44. Aphotic Layer (midnight zone) • No sunlight therefore no plants • Can reach depths of close to 20,000’ • Very cold and completely dark • Life isn’t easy here; fewer organisms than other zones • Some animals do not have eyes

  45. Division by Location • 2 Major Divisions • 1. Pelagic Division • Pelagius= “of the sea” • Open water at any depth • 2 zones • 2. Benthic Division • Benthos=bottom (bottom of the sea floor) • Ocean bottom below neritic and pelagic zones • Nutrients get here by “raining” down from waters above (detritus)

  46. Pelagic Division

  47. 1. Nertic zone (neritos= shallow) • Littoral Zone • Shoreline between high and low tides • High levels of light, nutrients, and oxygen • Stressful environment (drying, wave action) • Sublittoral Zone • Open Ocean • From shoreline to 650’ • Organisms all floaters or swimmers • Large numbers of phytoplankton

  48. 2. Oceanic Zone • 4 areas • Epipelagic zone (epi= atop) • Mesopleagic (mesos= middle) • Bathypelagic (bathos= depth) • Abyssopelagic (a= without, byssos= bottom)