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Invertebrate Biology PowerPoint Presentation
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Invertebrate Biology

Invertebrate Biology

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Invertebrate Biology

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  1. Invertebrate Biology Chapter 33

  2. Phylogentic Relationships of Animals Platyhelminthes Porifera Mollusca Chordata Arthropoda Annelida Cnideria Nematoda Echinodermata pseudocoelom segmentation acoelom Protostome: schizocoelem Deuterostomes: eucoelom radial symmetry bilateral symmetry no true tissues true tissue Ancestral Protist

  3. Sponges Phylum Porifera Class Desmospongiae Class Calcarea Class Hexactinellida Class Sclerospongia

  4. Characteristics • No true tissues or organs • No symmetry • No nerves or muscles • Sessile • Reproduce sexually and asexually • Skeletons composed of CaCO3 or SiO2 spicules or spongin • Filter feeders

  5. Desmospongiae • Most marine sponges (>80%) • All freshwater sponges • Leuconoid • Spongin and SiO2 spicules

  6. Calcarea • Contains all asconoid forms • Most syconoids • Generally small in stature • CaCO3 spicules

  7. Hexactinellida • Mostly deep sea forms • Glass-like lattice work • SiO2 spicules

  8. Sclerospongiae • CaCO3 foundation with SiO2 spicules • Found in Pacific and West Indies

  9. Skeletal Structure • No true tissues • Consists of organized cells supported by a skeleton of: • spongin fibers • calcareous spicules • silica spicules • a combination of these, or perhaps no skeletal structure at all

  10. No Gut SpongesPhylum Porifera

  11. Reproduction • Asexual: • production of external buds that detach or remain to form colonies • internal buds called gemmules that form during unfavorable periods • fragmentation (regeneration) • Sexual (mostly hermaphroditic): • eggs are retained in the mesohyl and fertilized by motile sperm that enter through the internal canals.  Zygotes develop into flagellated larvae,  which break loose and are carried away by water currents.

  12. Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Cubozoa Class Anthozoa Hydra Portuguese Man-Of-War Stinging Limu Fire Coral True jellyfish Box jellies Sea wasps Corals Anemones

  13. Polyp Medusa mouth/anus gastrovascular cavity epidermis mesoglea gastrodermis gastrovascular cavity mouth/anus

  14. The Cnidarian Life Cycle The Hydrozoan Life Cycle

  15. Nematocysts

  16. Class Hydrozoa “Stinging Limu”

  17. Hydrozoan Medusa

  18. Class Hydrozoa Close Up of a Portuguese Man-Of-War

  19. Class Scyphozoa

  20. Class Cubozoa Seawasp Box Jellies

  21. Subclass Zoantharia Order Actinaria Sea Anemones Class Anthozoa

  22. Subclass Hexacorallia Order Antipatheria Black Coral & Wire Coral Class Anthozoa Black coral Wire coral

  23. Class Anthozoa “True” Stony Corals lobe finger mushroom Porites rus

  24. Phylum Ctenophora

  25. Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Trematoda Class Turbellaria Class Cestoda

  26. Class Turbellaria Flatworm Anatomy

  27. Life History of a Blood Fluke Class Trematoda

  28. Class Cestoda

  29. Phylum Nemertea Ribbon worm

  30. Phylum Rotifera

  31. Phylum Nematoda

  32. Phylum Mollusca Class Polyplacophora Class Gastropoda Class Bivalvia Class Cephalopoda chitons Snails nudibranchs Squid Octopus Cuttlefish Nautilus clams More than 500,000 known species

  33. Body Plan • Three main parts: • Muscular foot- for movement • Visceral mass- contains most of the internal organs • Mantle cavity- houses gills

  34. Generalized Mollusc Anatomy mantle visceral mass foot

  35. Feeding Types • Grazers (radula- scraping tongue) • Filter feeding • Egg eaters • Active predation

  36. Class Polyplacophora

  37. Class Gastropoda Subclass Opisthobranchia Spanish Dancer (nudibranch) & egg mass

  38. Class Gastropoda Subclass Prosobranchia Cone shell Opihi Cowery periwinkle Triton’s trumpet

  39. Class Bivalvia

  40. Class Cephalopoda

  41. Class Cephalopoda

  42. Class Cephalopoda

  43. Class Cephalopoda

  44. Phylum Annelida Class Oligochaeta Class Polychaeta Class Hirudinia leaches Marine worms earthworm

  45. Class Oligochaeta

  46. Class Polychaeta

  47. Class Hirudinia

  48. Characteristics • Segmentation (metameric body plan) • Eucoelomate • 15,000 species • Closed circulatory system, but no heart • Hydrostatic skeleton • Excretion- protonephridia, metanephridia, diffusion or gills • Simple gut • Respiration- diffusion or gills • Central nervous system- brain and nerve cord • Reproduction- asexual or sexual (many gonochoric) • Sensory system of tactile organs, taste buds, statocysts,photoreceptor cells, and eyes with lenses.

  49. Feeding Modes • FEEDING MODES- very diverse • Raptors • Herbivores • Browsers/grazers • Omnivores • Direct deposit feeders • Indirect deposit feeders • Suspension feeders

  50. Annelid Anatomy