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Marijuana by Becky upshaw

Marijuana by Becky upshaw

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Marijuana by Becky upshaw

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  1. The Etiology and Effects of Marijuanaby Becky upshaw

  2. Commonly called marijuana, pot, or weed The most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance in the world (Gray & Zide, 2008) Contains over 420 chemicals, 30 or more of which are psychoactive “cannabinoids” 40.6% of the U.S. population over the age of twelve has tried marijuana at least once (NHSDU, 2007) Cannabis

  3. In 2007 approximately 10% of the population aged 12 or older had used pot in the past year • 5.8% had used it in the last month. • 6.7% of 12-17 year olds • 16.4% of 18-25 year olds • 3.9% of those 26 or older (SAMHSA, 2005) Patterns OF Use

  4. 7.9% of students in 6th through 12th grades reported having used pot in the last 30 days • 16.7% of 12th graders • Average age of first use 13.8 years • 18.8% reported that pot is very easy to get • 6.6% reported thinking that pot isn’t dangerous 2008 Ks Communities That Care Survey

  5. 14.6% of 8th graders have used marijuana at least once • compared to 14.2% in 2007 • 29.9% of 10th graders • 31% in 2007 • 42.6% of 12th graders • 41.8% in 2007 2008 Monitoring the Future Survey

  6. Elevates mood and relaxation Induces a dream-like state and feelings of well-being Increases appetite Relieves pain Positive Effects

  7. Decreases concentration, motivation and self-esteem • Results in problems with jobs, school, and relationships • Distorts perception of the passing of time • Reduces peripheral vision • Interferes with the ability to visually track moving objects • Causes visual trails behind moving objects • Inability to delay gratification (no long-term outlook) • Suppresses the immune system • Destroys cilia lining in airways • Decreases testosterone levels • Decreased interest in sex • Impotence in men with continued heavy use • Higher rate of miscarriages in women (Cohen & Inaba, 2008) • Can result in acute toxic psychosis (NIDA, 2005) Negative Effects

  8. The younger children are when they first use marijuana, the more likely they are to use cocaine and heroin and become dependent on drugs as adults (NIDA, 2005). “Chronic pot use results in apathy, social withdrawal, and impairment of goal-directed behavior. Impairment of short-term memory also results from chronic use (Levin,1995).” Initiation of Marijuana Use

  9. THC builds up in fat cells • White blood cells • Brain cells • Testicles and ovaries • Cell walls thicken with prolonged use • Neurotransmitter receptors recede • A-motivational syndrome develops • Impairs decision-making ability and reaction time • Hampers performance in sports, driving, operating equipment, etc. • Leaves the body very slowly • There are few noticeable withdrawal symptoms. • This encourages continued use because users are unaware that they’re addicted. Marijuana Addiction

  10. Monkeys • 3 joints per week with 1-2% THC content caused a build-up of tar/THC in fat cells • 3 or more joints per week for 2 years caused thickening of cell walls and clumping of cells • Airplane pilots • Fine motor control, visual tracking, and peripheral vision were impaired 24 hours after use. • Users were unaware of impairment after 4-6 hours. Experimental Studies

  11. Criteria for diagnosis • Compulsive use • Disregard for unpleasant consequences • Passiveness, lack of ambition • Depression • Suspiciousness (paranoia) • Panic or anxiety attacks • Impaired judgment (Gray & Zide, 2008) Treatment of Marijuana Addiction

  12. Case Planning • Orientation, assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, termination, and follow-up • Individual Therapy • Motivational Interviewing • Reality Therapy • Group therapy • Cognitive-behavioral education and training Treatment methods

  13. Helping the client recognize discrepancies between the life they want and where they are currently • Expressing empathy • Rolling with resistance by helping the client explore their thought and decision-making processes rather than challenging them • Encouraging and empowering clients to make positive changes • Utilizing Stages-of-Change Theory Motivational interviewing

  14. Therapists help addicts progress through the stages of recovery • Pre-contemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Action • Maintenance stages-of-change model

  15. Based on Choice Theory • Clients choose unhealthy behaviors because they believe it is the best way to get what they want or need. • Changing behavior requires first changing these beliefs. • Learning healthier ways to get their needs met • Practicing making healthier choices in a safe environment with their peers Reality Therapy

  16. Self-management skills • Self- evaluation • Decision-making and goal-setting techniques • Stress and anger management strategies • Social skills • Effective communication • Navigating complex social situations • Drug resistance skills • Assertiveness training • Substituting healthy “highs” like exercising and learning • Recognizing triggers for drug use • Learning and practicing relapse prevention techniques Cognitive-behavioral education

  17. Many experts believe that the subtle and insidious effects of marijuana use which build up slowly over time make it one of the most dangerous drugs in America (Ohlms, 2000). • Marijuana use is a symptom of deeper problems. • Marijuana addiction is crippling to individuals, families, communities, and our nation. conclusion

  18. The US currently has the world’s largest prison population. • In 2004, 44.2% of arrests for drug abuse involved marijuana. • A 2005 Supreme Court ruling allows federal officials to prosecute the possession and sale of marijuana, even in states that have passed laws allowing medical marijuana use (Cohen & Inaba, 2007). • An October 2009 US Department of Justice memo to US Attorneys recommended against prosecuting patients using medical cannabis products according to state laws. Dep. Attorney General Ogden concluded that doing so would likely be "an inefficient use of limited federal resources". (Retrieved Dec. 17, 2009: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_cannabis) • The sale of cannabis without permission remains illegal under federal law. • The US Food and Drug Administration’s position that marijuana has no accepted value in the treatment of any disease also remains unchanged. Recent Developments

  19. Questions?