Revised GRE® General Test 2011 How these changes will Affect student Preparation And When students should take the GRE
GRE® vs. GMAT® • More than 400 business schools around the world accept the GRE General Test scores for their MBA programs • Nearly 40% of the leading business schools accept GRE scores for their MBA programs (U.S. News & World Report Top 100 Business Schools), including Harvard, IE, MIT Sloan, NYU Stern, and Stanford. http://www.usnews.com/articles/education/best-business-schools/2010/05/14/gre-is-fast-becoming-a-gmat-alternative-for-b-school-applicants.html
General Changes Include • New types of questions that reflect the kind of thinking and learning that students do in graduate and business schools • The ability to move backwards and forwards within test sections in order to review or change answers • A Help button to review Question directions, Section directions, General directions, and testing tools • A clock that counts down time left in section* • Mark and Review buttons for flaggingquestions and reviewing/editing answers within the section during the time remaining**
General Changes Include • A limited functions calculator to help avoid minor calculation errors while encouraging focus on thought processes rather than calculations
Scoring the GRE® • On the current computerized test, the VR/QR questions adapt to present a more or less difficult question based on the correctness or incorrectness of the response on the previous question. Scoring then is based on the number of questions correct and the difficulty level of questions answered. • The revised test is presented and scored in sections. Thus the adaptability occurs at the end of the section, not per question. Raw scores are computed from each section based on the number of correct answers and the difficulty of the questions. Difficulty is based on the section adaptability. • Section orders are randomized although everyone will start with a Verbal Reasoning section (cont)
Scoring the GRE® Raw scores are converted to the scaled score through the Equating Process which accounts for • Minor variations in difficulty between different test editions • Differences in difficulty among individuals introduced by section-level adaptation The Analytical Writing section is still hand scored using the average of the scores assigned by two readers using a 6-point holistic scale and rounded up to the nearest ½ point interval.
Viewing or Canceling Scores • Once all sections have been completed, test takers are asked if they wish to report or cancel their scores. • If test taker selects report – they are able to view their unofficial score* and the score automatically becomes part of their 5-year GRE record • During the August-November non-reporting timeframe, the test taker will see estimated score ranges for the Verbal and Quantitative Reasoning sections on the old 200-800 score scale. • After December 1, 2011 unofficial VR/QR scores will be reported on the new 130-170 scale
The new GRE scoring Scale • A new scale for scores Old scale = 200 – 800 with SD of 10 New scale = 140 – 170 with SD of 1 • Score reporting to institutions will begin again in November 2011
New score reporting to institutions • If a candidate has taken the GRE revised General Test, the revised score report will show scores based on the new 130 – 170 score scale, along with associated percentiles. • If a candidate has taken the GRE General Test prior to August 2011 and submits their scores after November 2011, the revised score report will show the scores originally earned on the 200 – 800 scale, the estimated scores on the new 130 – 170 score scale and the associated percentiles.
Changes to the GRE®by section Verbal Reasoning Quantitative Reasoning Analytical Writing
Verbal Reasoning Assesses ability to: • Analyze and evaluate complex written material and synthesize information obtained from it • Analyze relations among component parts of sentences • Recognize relationships among words and concepts Two 30-minute sections; 20 questions in each section; contains 3 question types
Changes to VR include • Greater emphasis on complex reasoning skills using more text-based materials such as reading passages • to accommodate different interests and backgrounds there is a balance of questions in • Natural Science (Physical and Biological) • Social Sciences (Business, History, Political Science, Sociology, Psychology, Economics, and Anthropology) • Humanities (Literature, Philosophy, Art, Sculpture, Architecture, Music, Dance, and Theater) • No specific knowledge of any subject is required
VR continued • Less dependence on vocabulary knowledge alone resulting in no antonyms or analogies • New question types: Text Completion Questions and Sentence Equivalent Questions added to previous question type: Reading Comprehension Sets • New computer-enabled tasks such as highlighting a relevant sentence within a passage to answer a particular question
Reading Comprehension Sets • More reading passages • More questions • No line numbering –highlight • New question formats • Multiple Choice 5/1 • Multiple Choice 3/x • Select the sentence in passage that fits a given description – highlight entire sentence (not subparts) by clicking mouse on a portion of the sentence.
Text Completion Questions * • Consists of one or more sentences with 1 to 3 blanks. • Answer choices consist of alternatives for filling the blanks • Answer choices are independent • Scored as 1 answer - No partial credit is gained for partially correct answers
Text Completion Sample It is refreshing to read a book about our planet by an author who does not allow facts to be (1) ____ by politics; well aware of the political disputes about the effects of human activities on climate and biodiversity, this author does not permit them to (2) _____his comprehensive description of what we know about our biosphere. He emphasizes the enormous gaps in our knowledge, and the (3)___, calling attention to the many aspects of planetary evolution that must be better understood before we can accurately diagnose the condition of our planet. Blank (1) Blank (2) Blank (3)
Sentence Equivalence Questions* • Consists of a single sentence with one blank and 6 answer choices • Require selection of the two answer choices that complete the sentence coherently and produce sentences alike in meaning Critics believe that people who ______ complements do so in order to be praised twice Conjure up Covet Deflect Grasp Shrug off Understand
Quantitative Reasoning Assesses • basic mathematical skills • Understanding of elementary mathematical concepts • Ability to reason quantitatively and to model and solve problems with quantitative methods Mathematical knowledge expected: • Basic concepts of arithmetic, algebra, geometry and data analysis, including high-school level math and statistics (generally no higher than Algebra 2); • Excluding trigonometry, calculus, and higher college-level mathematics
Changes to QR include • Two 35-minute sections; 20 questions in each section • More data analysis than on previous test-less algebra, geometry and arithmetic • More real-life scenarios • Use of on-screen calculator • Some questions in Data Interpretation sets; will need to know quadratic equations and Pythagorean theorem • New tasks include Multiple Choice and Numeric Entry Questions
QR Question Types • Multiple Choice 5/1 • Multiple Choice 5/x • Quantitative Comparisons – compare two quantities • Numeric Entry – enter numeric answer in box(es) • Includes fractions and percent answers • Negative integers may be included in answers using the hyphen • Numerator and denominator will be entered in separate boxes for fraction responses
Numeric Entry • Numeric Entry – enter numeric answer in box(es) When online calculator is used to determine answers for numeric entry , caution used with Transfer Display. It will move whatever is in the data window to the answer box. If answer box shows % and the data window shows .05 as the decimal answer to a question, the TD will move .05 to the answer box .05% • Standard math conventions are followed for rounding • ETS’s The Math Review has been revised and expanded
Analytical Writing • Integrates assessment of critical thinking and analytical writing • Assesses ability to • Articulate and support complex ideas with an Issue Task • Construct and evaluate arguments with an Argument Task • Sustain a focused and coherent discussion • Does not assess specific content knowledge
Changes to AW • Two 30-minute tasks in one section only • Issue Task will always be the first task • Previously, test takers were given 45 minutes for the Issue Task and were given 2 topics from which to choose – with the change in task time, the test taker will not choose but will write on the topic assigned in the task • Tasks will be specifically focused on a specific criteria that the test-taker will have to respond to in their analysis.
Variants for Issue Task • Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position. • Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your opinion.
Variants for Issue Task • Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based. • Write a response in which you discuss your views on the policy and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider the possible consequences of implementing the policy and explain how these consequences shape your position.
Variants for Issue Task • Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should address both of the views presented. • Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position.
GRE Advisor’s Guide: An Inside Look http://www.ets.org/s/gre/pdf/advisor_guide.pdf • GRE Student’s Guide http://www.ets.org/s/gre/pdf/student_overview.pdf • Free Prep Materials http://www.ets.org/gre/revised_general/prepare
ETS Personal Potential Index (ETS® PPI) • Web-based tool • Faculty/staff evaluators provide applicant-specific information about six key attributes identified as essential for graduate study: • knowledge and creativity • resilience • communication skills • planning and organization • teamwork • ethics and integrity
PPI Process Student requests faculty evaluation. Submits name/email to ETS/PPI Receive email from ETS/PPI with link to evaluation; short registration; choose applicant. Complete evaluation. Student never sees report, but receives email alerting that the evaluation has been completed. Means from each scale are converted to a numerical score that is included in the institution report both from the individual rater and as an aggregated mean from up to 5 evaluators per report.