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2012

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  1. History/Social Studies Literacy:Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts 2012 History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  2. History/Social Studies Literacy:Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part I – Introduction and Skills for the 21st Century Part II - History/Social Studies Literacy: Cognitive Skills and Historical Thinking Part III – History/Social Studies Literacy: Reading Informational Text Part IV - History/Social Studies Literacy: Expository Writing Part V - History/Social Studies Literacy: Academic Vocabulary Part VI –History/Social Studies Literacy: Speaking and Listening Part VII - History/Social Studies Literacy: Civic Education Part VIII – Integrating History/Social Studies and English Language Arts for English Learners Part IX – Research-Based Instructional Tools, Companion Documents, References, Acknowledgements 2012 History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  3. History/Social Studies Literacy:Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part I – Introduction and Skills for the 21st Century History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  4. Defining literacy in history/social studies A student proficient in history/social studies literacy is knowledgeable in content information of one or more of the social studies disciplines and is able to use that knowledge contextually and in concert with higher order thinking skills, reading skills, writing skills, research skills, and speaking and listening skills. Literacy in history/social studies is expressed through critical thinking, creative problem-solving, communication of ideas, civic engagement, and global understanding. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  5. The related disciplines of History/social studies • Geography • Economics • History • Political Science • Civic Education • Sociology/Anthropology History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  6. history/social studies and literacy History/social studies is a content subject rich in facts, knowledge, concepts, analytical theory, and evidence but subject-matter CONTENT is only part of the discipline. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  7. History/social studies content and history/social studies skills • Content Knowledge • Facts and information (names, dates, people, places) • Chronological events and historical eras • Philosophical ideology, religion, and world views • Theoretical frameworks such as supply-and-demand • Discipline-specific academic vocabulary • Skills • Reading Skills • Thinking or cognitive skills such as analysis, evaluation, and cause and effect • Research skills • Writing skills • Problem-solving skills • Collaborative and participatory skills • Listening and speaking skills History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  8. The California Common Core State Standards in English language arts: Providing structure for integration of History/social studies • Reading Standards for Literature • Reading Standards for Informational Text • Writing Standards • Speaking and Listening Standards • Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-12 • Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12; History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  9. The goal of history/social studies literacy The goal of high quality history/social studies literacy is to be able to apply knowledge and conceptual understanding of the past and current events to real-life situations, socio-political issues, economics, and the human condition of today’s world. Inquiry and research are keys to developing this understanding. To this end, the study of history and the related social studies disciplines is based more on asking the right questions than relying on adequate answers. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  10. history/social studies and literacy- skill sets • Higher-order thinking • Research skills • Expository reading skills • Writing skills such as summary, informative, point of view, argumentation, persuasion, and evaluation • Speaking and listening skills • Problem-solving skills, creativity, and innovation • Collaborative skills • Communication skills • Academic vocabulary • Media literacy • Civic literacy • Environmental literacy and global awareness History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  11. cross-curricular skills embedded in the English language arts standards and common to high quality history/social studies instruction • Academic vocabulary • The use and analysis of primary source historical documents • Participatory skills and working collaboratively • Analytical and evaluative thinking skills • Expository reading for information • Expository writing as opinion or point of view, informational, explanatory, argumentation, investigative, and historical narrative • Speaking, listening, and presentation skills • Qualitative evaluation of information • Real-life applications History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  12. History/social studies and English language arts instruction The inclusion of history/social studies literacy in the English-language arts curriculum does not supplant the need for high quality history/social studies instruction but, rather, can support the teacher of English language arts in providing a context for students to see the relationships of the social science disciplines to contemporary society and application of skills. The skills that are honed in high quality history instruction can enrich and support all subjects in the kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  13. Skills for the 21st Century:Preparing students for the 21st Century Social studies education is the one common educational experience that helps all students acquire the knowledge, skills and dispositions to become competent and responsible citizens throughout their lives. Students need to acquire mastery of rigorous core subject material as well as cognitive and social skills to prepare students for college, career, and citizenship. This historic civic mission of our schools needs to be revitalized as the central purpose of education by strengthening civic education and workplace skills for allstudents at all grade levels. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  14. Skills for the 21st Century The four Cs • Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving • Communication • Collaboration • Creativity and Innovation History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  15. Skills for the 21st Century Aligning 21st Century skills and common core standards History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  16. Skills for the 21st Century Civic Literacy • Participating effectively in civic life through knowing how to stay informed and understanding governmental processes • Exercising the rights and obligations of citizenship at local, state, national and global levels • Understanding the local and global implications of civic decisions History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  17. Skills for the 21st Century Financial, Economic, Business and Entrepreneurial Literacy • Knowing how to make appropriate personal economic choices • Understanding the role of the economy in society • Using entrepreneurial skills to enhance workplace productivity and career options History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  18. Skills for the 21st Century Environmental Literacy • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the environment and the circumstances and conditions affecting it, particularly as relates to air, climate, land, food, energy, water and ecosystems • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of society’s impact on the natural world (e.g., population growth, population development, resource consumption rate, etc.) • Investigate and analyze environmental issues, and make accurate conclusions about effective solutions • Take individual and collective action towards addressing environmental challenges (e.g., participating in global actions, designing solutions that inspire action on environmental issues) (P21 framework definitions, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  19. Skills for the 21st Century Global Awareness • Using 21st century skills to understand and address global issues • Learning from and working collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, religions and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual respect and open dialogue in personal, work and community contexts • Understanding other nations and cultures, including the use of non-English languages History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  20. ACTIVITY 1Focus Question for Professional Discussion Discuss the cross-curricular instructional goals that would be supported through the integration of English language arts and history content. What types of instructional strategies would support those goals? History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  21. History/Social Studies Literacy:Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part II – History/Social Studies Literacy: Cognitive Skills and Historical Thinking History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  22. thinking in history/social studies Thinking is not driven by answers but by questions… every field stays alive only to the extent that fresh questions are generated and taken seriously as the driving force in a process of thinking. The Center for Critical Thinking (2012) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  23. What is historical thinking in history/social studies? • Historical thinking in history/social studies is the incorporation of analytical and higher-order thinking skills with history/social studies content. • Higher-order thinking skills are the means by which the student of history/social studies establishes cause and effect, makes comparisons, develops theoretical frameworks, applies conceptual knowledge, and determines significance. • The synthesis of cross-discipline content information and thinking skills is the basis for supporting evidence in argumentation, evaluation, and conclusive determinations. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  24. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy • Foundational Knowledge - facts and recall of who, what, when, where (recalling, recognizing, remembering) • Comprehension – understanding how and incorporating contextual information (understanding, conceptualizing, discussing, explaining, relating) • Application - transfer and use (applying, interpreting, demonstrating, practicing, implementing) • Analysis - the interrelationship and interdependence of components and contextual variables that explain the why of events and issues (analyzing, organizing, examining, deconstructing, differentiating, attributing) • Evaluation- the evaluation of evidence to develop hypotheses, form opinions, make judgments, and engage in reasoned decision-making (evaluating, checking, critiquing, prioritizing, deciding, determining, defending) • Synthesis/Create - combining ideas, concepts, and information in new ways and the use of meta-cognitive thinking for perspective (creating, connecting, arranging, proposing, hypothesizing, planning, formulating, producing) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  25. History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade 12 (1998) analysis skills • Chronological and Spatial Thinking • Historical Research, Evidence, and Point-of-View • Historical Interpretation History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  26. Application of cognitive skills in the history/social studies classroom Students proficient in history/social studies literacy will be able to: • explain cause and effect • compare and contrast • distinguish between fact and opinion • build persuasive and logical arguments • understand the significance of historical legacy • develop in-depth understandings of diversity, multiculturalism, and the global community • engage in citizenship responsibilities, 21st Century skills, and informed discussion of current issues History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  27. The Critical Thinking process in history/social studies • Identify and articulate the problem, question, or issue. • Define the purpose, goals, or objectives. • Research the topics and related issues. • Take a position. • Engage in fact-finding with attention to assumptions, bias, intended audience, multiple perspectives, and evaluation of sources of information. • Develop and test hypotheses with logic and evidence. • Review position and adjust if necessary. • Reflect on implications and consequences, pros and cons, long-term vs. short term effects, alternative perspectives, bias, and other frames of reference. • Develop reasoning that leads to conclusions, actions, or positions. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  28. A sampling of Cognitive and reasoning skills in history/social studies • Recalling and recognizing foundational content knowledge • Understanding and applying concepts • Summarizing • Analyzing information • Evaluating information and ideas • Envisioning and responding to multiple perspectives • Recognizing bias • Drawing conclusions based on evidence and logic • Developing a persuasive argument (oral and written) • Taking and defending a position through fact-finding and reasoning • Becoming adept at debate skills and building logical argumentation • Synthesizing knowledge and content from related fields through cause and effect, identification of key variables, and mitigating/intensifying factors • Developing good decision-making skills History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  29. Sample classroom applications of cognitive skills in history/social studies • Writing performance tasks that ask the students “how” and “why” questions • Classroom discussion based on sources that inform (articles, maps, graphs, photographs, interviews, etc.) and provide for opportunities in which students analyze, evaluate, consider multiple perspectives, make inferences, and draw conclusions • The use of primary sources to discuss original intent, evidence, questions raised, and significance for today • Student research of the variables of economics, politics, religion, geography, and world conditions on historical events and current issues • Discussion and writing on the significance of historical events, decisions, and eras • Structured debate, mock trials, hearings and moot courts, news broadcast re-enactments, student presentations, and dramatic representations to gain in-depth understandings History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  30. ACTIVITY 2Focus Question for Professional Discussion List some of the key thinking skills that should be emphasized at each grade level cluster (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). What are some examples of classroom learning activities that will help to build thinking skills from one grade level to the next? History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  31. History/Social Studies Literacy:Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part III – History/Social Studies Literacy: Reading Informational Text History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  32. Reading in History/social studies Reading for information in history/social studies is NOT the same as reading for other disciplines, including literature, science, and technological studies. Reading in history/social studies requires an instructional shift in use of prior knowledge, academic vocabulary in history/social studies, questioning strategies, and critical thinking skills to evaluate, apply, and synthesize information. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  33. Reading for informationin history/social studies • History texts “are not lifeless strings of useless facts, but the keys to unlocking the character of human beings, people with likes and dislikes, biases and foibles, airs and convictions” (Wineburg, 2001, p. 74). • Reading in history and social studies is unique because the reader “decodes” both the author and the text. • From reading, students construct meaning and historical understanding. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  34. Competent readers in history/social studies Students who are proficient in reading in history/social studies…. • Monitor their own comprehension • Use reading strategies when understanding begins to break down • Summarize after each paragraph • Use headings, captions, images, maps, etc. to enhance understanding • Determine the meanings of words and phrases in context • Connect content to what they already know History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  35. Instructional sources for history/social studies • Primary source documents and images • Secondary source articles and texts • Propaganda • Biographies • Diaries and letters • Charts, graphs, maps • News articles and broadcasts • Blogs and internet sources • Poetry, myths, and legends • Historical fiction History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  36. Deconstructing the history/social studies written word with students • Dissect each sentence into the noun/subject, verb/action, and who/what is the subject of the action. • Clarify or define key words and concepts. • Identify relationships and patterns between the sentences and within the paragraph. • Consider the text as a whole and create a meaningful summary of it. (Schleppegrell, 2009) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  37. Expository Reading skills in history/social studies • Analyze primary sources • Compare and evaluate authors’ arguments and evidence • Seek and cite evidence to support one’s own arguments • Recognize text structure (e.g., sequential, comparison, cause-effect) • Distinguish among fact, opinion and reasoned argument • Differentiate and analyze the relationship between primary and secondary sources on the same topic • Determine central ideas • Corroborate and/or challenge authors’ arguments • Determine meanings of words and phrases in context • Develop a coherent understanding of a topic by integrating diverse sources History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  38. How can students develop deeper Understanding when reading in history/social studies? • By asking questions that inquire into the author’s purpose and audience, teachers can help students develop an understanding of bias in text as a rhetorical artifact with a focus on what the author was trying to accomplish. Wineburg explains that history-social science text divulges the author’s world view, perceptions, and prejudices. This occurs even when the author intends to hide his or her beliefs. (Wineberg, 2001) • Providing opportunities for students to interact with the teacher and classmates about the possible meanings of the text emphasizes the art of historians and social scientists while developing astute readers who attend to what lies between the lines in all text. • By challenging students to figure out the author’s beliefs, students become readers who pay close attention and can discern the author’s intentions. • Reading and questioning go hand-in-hand as teachers help students understand the world. History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  39. What teachers can do to build reading comprehension in history/social studies • Scaffold reading assignments • Teach academic vocabulary development • Provide support in constructing meaning from primary and secondary sources • Utilize a wide variety of fiction and non-fiction materials that capture student interest and help paint a picture of other places and times • Teach about bias into the author’s meaning and beliefs • Use concept maps, questions, graphic organizers, and opportunities for students to interact with one another about the text History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  40. Sample Standards alignment in reading and history/social studies History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  41. Sample Standards alignment in reading and history/social studies History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  42. Sample Standards alignment in reading and history/social studies History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  43. ACTIVITY 3Focus Question for Professional Discussion Effective instruction uses questioning strategies, evidence from historical documents, evaluation of information, and synthesis of conceptual understanding to help students develop inquiry-based knowledge and frame essential questions as the basis for research in history/social studies. How can teachers help students to develop research skills through the framing of essential questions of history/social studies content? What are some examples of effective research questions at each grade level? History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  44. History/Social Studies Literacy:Content and Skills for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Part IV – History/Social Studies Literacy: Expository Writing History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  45. Writing is thinking in visual form Civilization has always been based on codified norms and recorded through writing. Writing is the concrete manifestation of thinking. Writing allows for organization of the thinking process, cognitive interactions with content, development of logic, and creative or unique presentation of how thinking can be shared. This is our legacy that we share with our students today and into the future. (Kidwell, 2011) History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  46. Expository Writing Skills in history/social studies • Formulate essential questions • Use and present research • Evaluate sources of information • Differentiate between fact and opinion • Develop supporting evidence • Address the issue of significance • Communicate and present conclusions and evaluative summaries with logic and reasoning History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  47. Forms of Expository Writing in history/social studies • Persuasive writing • Reflective writing • Summarizing • Reporting information • Letter-writing • Presentation of ideas and viewpoints • Narrative • Synthesizing or developing interrelationships between events, eras, the disciplines of history/social studies History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  48. Examples of expository writing in history/social studies • Explain a process • Narration of a historical event • Analyze cause and effect connections • Compare and contrast • Analyze problems and present solutions • Develop a thesis statement or reasonable hypothesis based on factual evidence • Present and defend a position with supporting documentation • Build a persuasive argument or propose a solution • Write about literature, including historical sources and historical fiction • Create visuals to support expository writing (timelines, graphic organizers, charts, etc.) • Develop a multi-media presentation using quotations, key ideas, visuals, and conclusive evidence for specific audience or purpose; History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  49. Sample writing tasks in the history/social studies classroom • Write a letter to a congressional representative stating a position • Describe a day in the life of a historical figure • Outline the similarities and differences of historical events, eras, cultures, political regimes, etc. • Summarize a community issue or problem and pose a solution • Analyze historical cause and effect factors on the Crusades, Imperialism in Africa, the Boston Tea Party, the French Revolution, the industrial revolution, World War I, World War II, or other historical events • Explain the historical significance of an event or era • Explain the effects of economic, geographic, cultural, or political issues in contemporary society or global relations • Support or present opposition to a law or regulation • Describe primary sources to support/oppose court rulings History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012

  50. Teacher-Directed Class Preparation for the Writing Process • Direct instruction on the writing process • Teacher-directed discussion on expectations and requirements with particular attention on the avoidance of plagiarism • Rubric review and examination of samples of writing • Direct instruction and discussion on how to research credible sources of information, how to differentiate secondary from primary resources, how to evaluate sources of information, and how to identify bias and opinion • Modeling of patterns of logic and reasoning • Identification and teaching of the appropriate academic vocabulary that applies specifically to the topic as well as generic words that pertain to the genre in which students are writing • Provision of adequate time for students to review and revise for ongoing improvement History/Social Studies Literacy & the Common Core 2012