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A - P - P - P

A - P - P - P

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A - P - P - P

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  1. Humans cells use a supply of energy to stay alive. The energy is provided by a high-energy molecule called ATP (energy currency). Energy In A-P-P + P A-P-P-P Energy Out ADP + P ATP

  2. But…WHERE DID THE ATP COME FROM? The answer is that ATP is made in our cells using the energy from FOOD.

  3. Sick Guy

  4. GLUCOSE Sick Guy

  5. GLUCOSE oxygen Sick Guy

  6. HUMAN FOOD SOURCES: LETTUCE TOMATO WHEAT ONION PICKLE BEEF CHICKEN PORK CHEESE PLANTS ANIMALS THAT EAT PLANTS

  7. Q. HOW DOES FOOD GET THE ENERGY THAT WE USE? FROM THE SUN. A. THE PROCESS IS CALLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

  8. GREEN PLANTS ARE ABLE TO CAPTURE RADIANT ENERGY (LIGHT) FROM THE SUN, AND GREEN PLANTS CAN CONVERT THE RADIANT ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL ENERGY (FOOD).

  9. THE PROCESS CARRIED OUT BY GREEN PLANTS IS: PHOTOSYNTHESIS THE CONVERSION OF RADIANT ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY DEPENDS ON THE PIGMENT MOLECULE: CHLOROPHYLL

  10. Photosynthesis SUN H2O + CO2 C6H12O6+ O WATER + CARBON GLUCOSE + OXYGEN DIOXIDE

  11. TEXBOOK FIGURE 5.10 CHLOROPLAST Membrane compartments Membranes Inside of membranes, Inside of membranes A chloroplast

  12. CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE (see text page 111)

  13. WHAT DOES CHLOROPHYLL DO? IT ABSORBS THE ENERGY OF LIGHT Light energy raises an electron to a higher energy level e- WHITE LIGHT (SUN) CHLOROPHYLL Chlorophyll absorbs RED and BLUE light. GREEN light bounces off.

  14. 1. ADDING ELECTRONS AND HYDROGENS TO A MOLECULE IS CALLED REDUCTION. 2. REMOVING ELECTRONS AND HYDROGENS FROM A MOLECULE IS CALLED OXIDATION. 3. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION ARE ALWAYS COUPLED TOGETHER. (AN ELECTRON COMES FROM ONE MOLECULE AND IS GIVEN TO ANOTHER.

  15. The electron is donated to a molecule, NADP(the vitamin Niacin) The NADP is REDUCED to form NADPH NADP WHITE LIGHT (SUN) NADPH (e-) (e-) CHLOROPHYLL

  16. 1. ADDING ELECTRONS AND HYDROGENS TO A MOLECULE IS CALLED REDUCTION. 2. REMOVING ELECTRONS AND HYDROGENS FROM A MOLECULE IS CALLED OXIDATION. 3. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION ARE ALWAYS COUPLED TOGETHER. (AN ELECTRON COMES FROM ONE MOLECULE AND IS GIVEN TO ANOTHER.

  17. The NADP is REDUCED to form NADPH NADP NADPH (e-) (e-) WHITE LIGHT (SUN) CHLOROPHYLL (e-) H2O Oxygen (O) Water is split And Oxidized H+ Hydrogen Ion (proton)

  18. See text figure 5.18 (2 photosystems)

  19. ATP IS A HIGH ENERGY MOLECULE ENERGY A-P-P A-P-P-P ADP ATP Adenosine DI Phosphate Adenosine TRI Phosphate LOW ENERGY HIGH ENERGY

  20. Text figure 5.20 ATP Formation

  21. Step 1 H+ PQ PQ e- e- e- PQ H+ H+ The PQ Gets REDUCED The PQ Gets Oxidized Electron transport moves a proton across the thylakoid membrane

  22. STEP 2 H+ ADP + P H+ ATP Electron Transport H+ H+ As the Protons flow back across the thylakoid membrane, ATP is formed

  23. The light-independent steps of Photosynthesis (the Calvin Cycle) ATP CO2 ADP + P C6H12O6 NADPH (Reduced) NADP (Oxidized) Glucose Sugar (a food molecule) Carbon Dioxide (not a food molecule) Reduced

  24. Text book Figure 5.21