Feelings on the Tip of the Tongue: Taste, Emotion, and the Organization of Behavior
Trivia Tidbits • “I am a(n) ___________________” • Top three terms of endearment • Causes of anorexia
Objectives • Share my research interests • “Pitch” topical integration
Evolution: Eating as an adaptive problem Overview • Emotion: Taste as marker • Behavior: Taste as systems organizer • Eating in context: Global implications
Evolution says… • Eat • Eat good stuff • Don’t eat bad stuff • The omnivore’s dilemma • Mouth as gate, taste as gatekeeper
Elaborations of Taste Darwin (1972/1965): “The laughter of the gods is described by Homer as ‘the exuberance of their celestial joy after their daily banquet’ … Disgust is a sensation rather more distinct in its nature, and refers to something revolting, primarily in relation to the sense of taste… and secondarily to anything which causes a similar feeling” (p. 196).
Paul Rozin (1996) “Towards a psychology of food and eating: From motivation to module to model to marker, morality, meaning, and metaphor”
Trivia Tidbit Time • Terms of endearment related to eating?
Taste & Metaphor • That was so sweet of you! • Chris has a saccharine personality. • The incident left a bad taste in my mouth. • Pat was a bitter person.
Dess & Edelheit (1998) • Mild stress vs. control • Rate saccharin and tone • Temperament measures Taste as Emotion Marker Does taste predict emotionality?
Meet Your Genes • Touch paper briefly to tip of tongue. Any taste? • If not, put paper on the tongue for several seconds. Any taste? • Supertasters, tasters, non-tasters
Less: Sweet, fat preference Vegetable intake Dental caries Body fat Smoking Alcohol drinking Family alcoholism Cardiovascular disease More: Intense sweetness Apprehensiveness Depression “Taster” Status Predicts:
Curiouser and Curiouser… • 25 genes for bitter receptors • expression depends on experience
We are not alone:Occidental Low- and High-Saccharin Consuming Rats HiS rat LoS rat
Preference for Alcohol-Paired Flavors Dess, O’Neill, & Chapman (2006)
Cocaine Self-Administration HiS rats LoS rats TRAINING DAYS Carroll, Morgan, Lynch, Campbell, & Dess (2002)
Back to the original question: -- Do LoS and HiS differ in emotionality?
Taste as Systems Organizer • Spatiotemporal organization • Social organization
Eating on the Run • Deprivation-induced hyperactivity • Activity anorexia
Scarce food Diet 1 Diet 2 Diet 3
Trivia Tidbit Time • Causes of anorexia
Meal Patterning LoS rats initiate more meals at night LoS Nighttime Meals HiS
“It seems to me that our three most basic needs, for food and security and love, are so mixed and mingled and entwined that we cannot straightly think of one without the others. So it happens that when I write of hunger, I am really writing about love.” - M. F. K. Fisher, noted food writer, 1990, p. 353
Trivia Tidbit Time • “I am a(n) ______________”
Sugar in Your Coffee? I do not know if coffee and sugar are essential to the happiness of Europe, but I know well that these two products have accounted for the unhappiness of two great regions of the world: America has been depopulated so as to have land on which to plant them; Africa has been depopulated so as to have the people to cultivate them. -- Bernadin de Saint Pierre (1773)
Bitter Enemies: Can We Sweeten the Deal? SHARING PEACE BY BREAKING BREAD Today is Sept. 11. It is a day when many of us may relive the horror and fear that descended upon this country a year ago, reflect on the changes that the attacks have brought and hope that all of this can end soon. Tonight, three different faith communities -- Milledge Avenue Baptist Church, Congregation Children of Israel and Al-Huda Islamic Center -- will gather together in the spirit of unity, honoring the past and their building friendships with the great equalizer: food.
Teaching Eating • Everyone eats • Accessible, visceral • Complicates “simple to complex” • It takes a village
Kimberly Black Steve Chang Natassa Damaskou Heather Furner Carrie Liston Natalya Lvoff Liz Pelayo Joy Sebe Jill Arnal Jocelyn Richard Stephanie Freidburg-Strauss Courtney Kennel Evan Stiles Elena Busto Vincent Chen Rita Molestina Larissa Gibson Mitzi Gonzales Cheryl Prigodich Cameryn Garrett Jenny Alonzo Patricia O’Neill Alison Williams Sara Hahn Student Colleagues
Dale Chapman Dennis VanderWeele Roberta Pollock Tom Minor, UCLA Mike Fanselow, UCLA Ken Green, CSULB Stephen Kiefer, KSU Marilyn Carroll, U Minnesota Faculty Colleagues
And… Thanks to the terrific APA staff and to YOU for your important work in schools and for this opportunity to share!