Who do you look up to? Who is your role model? Have you ever observed a behaviour that you have then copied?
Social Learning Theory • According the Bandura, there are 4 processes involved with Social Learning • Attention • Retention • Reproduction • Motivation • Mnemonic?
Example • Jane dyes her hair pink because her favourite celebrity has done so. • First Jane paid attention to what the celebrity had done • Jane then retained this information • Jane was capable of reproducing the behaviour of dying her hair • Jane was motivated to dye her hair pink and did so
Factors involved in SLT • The more similar the role model is to the observer, the more likely that the behaviour will be imitated • Same gender • Same age • Also, if the role model is seen in a positive light • High status • Likeable
Behaviourist Assumption Social Learning Theory • Social learning is learning through observation, imitation and modelling or another person or role model. • We Observe a role model’s behaviour and its consequence • We store this as a MENTAL REPRESENTATION (memory) • We may then repeat this behaviour in the future
Social Learning Theory of aggression (p18) OMM • Observation • We Observe a role model’s behaviour and its consequence if we see the model being rewarded, we are being indirectly reinforced – Bandura calls this VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT • We store this as a MENTAL REPRESENTATION including whether the behaviour is rewarded or punished – this is our EXPECTANCY of FUTURE OUTCOMES
Social Learning Theory of aggression (p18) OMM • We may then repeat this behaviour in the future if the situation arises and we are directly reinforced. • This is called MAINTENANCE through DIRECT EXPERIENCE. • Remember we can learn directly or through what happens to someone else. • If we learn from what happens to someone else, this is VICARIOUS LEARNING
Vicarious Learning • Come up with an example for each of the following: • Vicarious reinforcement • Vicarious punishment • Vicarious extinction
Social Learning Theory • With the people around you, discuss how this theory could be applied to aggression • Using the 4 stages, how could a little girl imitate her older sister’s aggressive behaviour? • What other factors may have influenced her?
Evidence for social learning theory • bobo doll experiment – YouTube • Summarise Bandura’s 1961 experiment • What is the KEY finding? • Summarise Bandura’s 1963 experiment • bobo doll experiment – YouTube • What is the major new thing we learn from this second study?
Other evidence • Speed date!