Social Learning Theory Our third theory of Learning P34-35 Orange Pack P339-342 Brain Text Book
Make sure you have a white board ready http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8tcnF_Styw What does this advert suggest about children’s attitudes and behaviour?
Behaviourism S R Behaviourists aren’t interested in what happens in between S and R. They don’t think it is relevant!
Social learning theory S O R Social Learning Theorists say important things take place in the mind of the organism that mediate between S and R. Human’s aren't the same as animals. They say we do need to know about a person’s mental processes.
Bandura agreed with the behaviourist learning theories……which are….? • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning But He was interested in • The mediating processes between stimulus & response • The role of Observation in learning
Social learning Theory Bandura’s research in the 1960’s suggested that children seem to learn by observation and imitation without being directly reinforced. He called this ……
He suggested that social learning could be broken down into stages • Modelling • Identification • Observation • Imitation • Reinforcement
Modelling • We model ourselves on other people • We choose our own role models • This is a COGNITIVE PROCESS. People actively seek out and decide who they want to be like. • Copying the behaviour of a chosen person - a ‘role model’ depends on a number of factors.
Who makes an effective role model? Same gender Same age/slightly older Attractive Higher status/powerful Admired or/and respected Popular Someone we can identify with
Observation We have to notice the behaviour (GIVE ATTENTION) and remember what we’ve seen (RETENTION)
Imitation • This is simply copying behaviour and is the fastest type of learning in humans. • Behaviour may be imitated because it is seen as rewarding in some way.
Bandura believed that four criteria need to be met for imitation to occur 1. Attention to the role model 2. Retention of the observed behaviour 3. Reproduction of the target behaviour 4. Motivation to imitate the observed behaviour
Restrictions on imitation So not all behaviour is likely to be imitated. According to SLT, the two conditions for performing a behaviour are: • Reproduction • Motivation
Why do we imitate? Vicarious reinforcements What??? Observe behaviour being reinforced in other people
Vicarious Reinforcement • Is a form of indirect learning • We copy someone's behaviour because of the particular outcome it had for that person. • Thus, we learn from observing other peoples experiences
Self - efficacy • In order to imitate, children need the belief that they have the capacity to imitate a behaviour they have observed. • They also need Reinforcement of that behaviour to keep them from extinguishing the learned behaviour. Reinforcement strengthens behaviour with positive consequences.
Check your understanding Write a definition of vicarious reinforcement What does self-efficacy mean? According to Bandura what four criteria need to be met for imitation to occur?
Check A group of students have a disagreement about which of the three definitions below can be applied to the terms • Modelling • Reinforcement • Identification • A person’s desire to be like another person or to be part of a particular social group • The process by which a response is strengthened • A procedure whereby a person observes another person and then attempts to imitate his or her behaviour.
Discussion points • Who would you say is a role model for young boys? • Who is a role model for young girls these days? • How might parents encourage sex appropriate behaviours? • Do you think mothers and fathers differ in how concerned they are about sex appropriate behaviour? • What makes children continue to copy certain behaviours? • Do you think other children encourage sex typed behaviours?
Supporting Evidence Aim: Dweck et al (1978) observed teachers use of negative and positive feedback in the classroom. Method: 79 children were observed in the classroom twice a week for 5 weeks. Observers were blind to the purpose of the experiment The teacher’s verbal responses to the children were noted: whether feedback was related to work/behaviour, whether it was positive or negative and whether is was related to content/presentation (i.e. neatness). Results: Boys tended to receive positive reinforcement for content, whilst girls for neatness. The pattern was reversed for negative comments. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that teachers responded in different ways to boys and girls.
Activity Time • Use your text book to read and make notes on Social Learning Theory (pages 339-342) • For next lesson be prepared to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of SLT • Complete the gap fill on p36 of your Orange pack • Complete the terminology Sorting task onp37 of your Orange pack Extension Activity: Consider how SLT could be used to explain gender development - Complete p38 in your pack Stretch & Challenge: Compare & contrast how the psychodynamic, biological and Learning approach explain gender development
Learning Objectives You should now be able to DescribeSocial Learning Theory You will be able to define the following key terms... Imitation Modelling Observation Vicarious reinforcement Identification You should be able to explain gender identification in terms of SLT TASK REMINDER • Use your text book to read and make notes on Social Learning Theory (pages 339-342) • For next lesson be prepared to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of SLT • Complete the gap fill on p36 of your Orange pack • Complete the Sorting task on p 37 of your Orange pack Extension Activity: Consider how SLT could be used to explain gender development p38 in your pack Stretch & Challenge: Compare & contrast how the psychodynamic, biological and Learning approach explain gender development
Top five things you have learned today HW: Complete today’s learning activities. Read ahead. It’s Bandura’s Bo Bo doll study next (BTB p350).
Learning Approach Key study Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Make sure you have a white board ready
Before we begin….talk to your partner 1.. Come up with 2 behaviours you think could be learned by watching others 2. Come up with 2 behavioursyou think could not be learned in this way Be ready to explain your reasoning and be ready to share with the rest of the class
Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models Bandura, Ross & Ross (1961)
Aims Bandura wanted to find out if children who saw an adult behave aggressively to a inflatable doll would copy the aggressive acts given the opportunity He also wanted to find out if boys were more predisposed towards imitating aggression than girls He wanted to find out if children are more likely to copy same sex role models
The participants • 72 children (Stanford University nursery school) • 36 boys & 36 girls • age range 37 months - 69 months • Mean age 52 months (4 years 4 months)
Method – Bandura used a controlled Laboratory experiment There were three conditions 24 children in each condition
The THREE CONDITIONS • Aggressive condition • Non-aggressive condition • Control condition
Before being assigned to a condition Physical Aggression 1 – 5 Verbal aggression 1-5 Participants in the experimental and control conditions were matched on ratings of their aggressive behaviour based on observed social interactions in their nursery school Participants were rated by both the teacher and the experimenter - both of whom knew the children well
So in order to ensure that each group contained equally aggressive children they were all rated for aggression before the experiment Children were rated for • physical aggression • verbal aggression • aggression to inanimate objects • aggression inhibition (self-control)
Confederates Twoadults: one male, one female served in the role as the model One female experimenter conducted the study for all 72 children
6 boys saw aggressivemale 6 boys saw non-aggressive male 6 boys saw aggressivefemale 6 boys saw non-aggressive female 6 girls saw aggressivefemale 6 girls saw non-aggressive female 6 girls saw aggressivemale 6 girls saw non-aggressive male
Level 1 Independent Variable (IV) • aggressive or non-aggressive role model Level 2 Independent variable (IV) • gender of the role model Level 3 Independent variable…?
Question What type of experimental/participant design did Bandura use? What type of research method did Bandura use?
Write a TESTABLE two-tailed hypothesis for the study Write a TESTABLE one-tailed hypothesis for the study
The Procedure Phase one of the experiment Modelling the behaviour phase Children were taken one at a time to a separate part of the building by the female experimenter for…
Phase 1 - Modelling The child was sat in one corner of the room and was encouraged to play with toys – potato printing and tinker toys. The model was sat in another corner. The model also played with toys. Either in a subdued way or aggressively depending on the experimental condition.
Procedure Non-aggressive Condition The model assembled the tinker toys in a non-aggressive manner and ignored the Bobo doll Aggressive Condition The model began by assembling the Tinker Toys for about a minute. The model then turned to Bobo and spent the remaining time being aggressive towards it
procedure The model performed a number of distinctive aggressive acts Physical Aggression • The model lay Bobo on its side and sat on itthen punched it repeatedly on the nose • The model hit Bobo on the head with the mallet • The model tossed Bobo in the air aggressively then kicked it around the room Verbal Aggressive Statements • ‘Sock him in the nose’ • ‘Hit him down’ • ‘Pow’ • ‘Kick him’ Verbal Non-Aggressive Statements • ‘He sure is a tough fella’ & ‘He keeps coming back for more’
Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study What happened then? Phase two of the experiment The Arousal phase This was necessary to provoke the children
The children were intentionally upset • In phase 2 the child was taken into a separate room laid out with a wonderful array of brand new toys. • Once the child had started to play with the toys they were told they had to stop…as these toys were intended for other children. • This upset many of the children
Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • What happened then? Phase three of the experiment The Observation phase