Social Learning Theory Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Context: Behaviorism • Declaration of Behaviorism: The goal of psychology should be to predict and control overt behavior (Watson, 1913) • Law of effect: Responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated while those followed by negative outcomes are not • Operant Conditioning:People learn to behave in ways that result in reinforcement
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura • Read biology but took intro to psych to fill his morning hours • PhD from the University of Iowa, the home of behaviorism • Paid for grad school by doing home repairs for his advisor • Neobehaviorist
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning Theory • Observational Learning: People learn by observing others’ behavior and the outcomes of their behavior • Socialization: Process by which society teaches children to behave like the ideal adults of the society • One of the most powerful socialization forces is observational learning • Children learn to behave like others in their culture because observed behaviors will likely be reinforced
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning vs. Behaviorism Behaviorism • Learning occurs via reinforcement • Learned behaviors must be demonstrated • Behaviors must be personally reinforced to be learned • Consequences strengthen or weaken behavior Social Learning • Learning is affected by social influences • Learned behaviors can be acquired knowledge • People can learn through the reinforcement of others • Consequences provide information about the social acceptability of behavior
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning • Types of reinforcement • Direct: Environment reinforces the child • Vicarious: The child observes the environment reinforcing another person • Self: The child reinforces themself
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning • Four elements must be met for a child to learn a behavior through observational learning: • Pay attention to the model • Retain information about the behavior • Produce the behavior • Be motivated to repeat the behavior
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning Process Attention Retention Production Motivation • Task complexity • Model relevance • Repetition • Reminders • Feedback • Rewards T • Attention skills • Cognitive skills • Interest • Cognitive skills • Visual rehearsal • Behavioral rehearsal • Physical ability • Sub-skills • Rewards preference • Internal standards • Self-Efficacy S
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning • Observing a model engaging in a behavior can lead to behavior change by: • Teaching new behaviors • Encouraging previously forbidden behaviors • Drawing attention to particular tools • Increasing emotional arousal • Domains of Research in Observational Learning • Aggression • Gender development • Peer relationships • Prosocial behavior • Influences of television and other media
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning • Observational learning is most common among novices • Children are most likely to learn from models who are: • Strong • Nurturing • Similar • Race • Gender • Personal characteristics
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Explaining Development • Experience with the social world influences development • As children interact with others, they learn: • New behaviors • Appropriate situation for the behavior • Motivation to perform the behavior through reinforcement • Enculturation largely involves exhibiting desirable social behaviors and strategies of problem solving • Similar behaviors within the culture are the result of exposure to similar models
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Comparing Developmental Theories
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Critique of Social Learning • Strengths • Integrates social influences to behaviorism • Describes a powerful mechanism for social development • Weaknesses • Does not examine mental processes associated with observational learning • Does not explain all types of learning
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning in Education • Students often learn by observing others. • Teachers and parents must model appropriate behaviors and avoid modeling inappropriate behaviors. • Teachers should expose students to a variety of models. • Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones.
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Revision • Describe the four steps in observational learning and what the teacher can do to support each step. • How does observational learning lead to behavior change? • According to social learning theory, what are the three types of reinforcement?