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Social Learning Theory

Social Learning Theory

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Social Learning Theory

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  1. Social Learning Theory Our third theory of Learning P36-37 Green Pack P339-342 Brain Text Book

  2. By the end of today’s session

  3. What does this advert suggest about children’s attitudes and behaviour?

  4. Behaviourism S R Behaviourists aren’t interested in what happens in between S and R. They don’t think it is relevant!

  5. Social learning theory S O R Social Learning Theorists say important things take place in the mind of the organism that mediate between S and R. Human’s aren't the same as animals. They say we do need to know about a person’s mental processes.

  6. Bandura agreed with the behaviourist learning theories • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning But He was interested in • The mediating processes between stimulus & response • The role of Observation in learning

  7. Social learning Theory Bandura’s research in the 1960’s suggested that children seem to learn by observation and imitation without being directly reinforced. He called this ……

  8. He suggested that social learning could be broken down into stages • Modelling • Identification • Observation • Imitation • Reinforcement

  9. Modelling • We model ourselves on other people • We choose our own role models • This is a COGNITIVE PROCESS. People actively seek out and decide who they want to be like. • Copying the behaviour of a chosen person - a ‘role model’ depends on a number of factors.

  10. Who makes an effective role model? Same gender Same age/slightly older Attractive Higher status/powerful Admired or/and respected Popular Someone we can identify with

  11. Observation We have to notice the behaviour (GIVE ATTENTION) and remember what we’ve seen (RETENTION)

  12. Imitation • This is simply copying behaviour and is the fastest type of learning in humans. • Behaviour may be imitated because it is seen as rewarding in some way.

  13. Bandura believed that four criteria need to be met for imitation to occur 1. Attention to the role model 2. Retention of the observed behaviour 3. Reproduction of the target behaviour 4. Motivation to imitate the observed behaviour

  14. Restrictions on imitation So not all behaviour is likely to be imitated. According to SLT, the two conditions for performing a behaviour are: • Reproduction • Motivation

  15. Why do we imitate? Vicarious reinforcements What??? Observe behaviour being reinforced in other people

  16. Vicarious Reinforcement • Is a form of indirect learning • We copy someone's behaviour because of the particular outcome it had for that person. • Thus, we learn from observing other peoples experiences

  17. Self - efficacy • In order to imitate, children need the belief that they have the capacity to imitate a behaviour they have observed. • They also need Reinforcement of that behaviour to keep them from extinguishing the learned behaviour. Reinforcement strengthens behaviour with positive consequences.

  18. Supporting Evidence Aim: Dweck et al (1978) observed teachers use of negative and positive feedback in the classroom. Method: 79 children were observed in the classroom twice a week for 5 weeks. Observers were blind to the purpose of the experiment The teacher’s verbal responses to the children were observed: whether feedback is related to work/behaviour, whether it was positive or negative, whether is was related to content/presentation (i.e. neatness). Results: Boys tended to receive positive reinforcement for content, whilst girls for neatness. The pattern was reversed for negative comments. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that teachers do respond in different ways to boys and girls.

  19. Discussion points • Who would you say is a role model for young boys? • Who is a role model for young girls these days? • How might parents encourage sex appropriate behaviours? • Do you think mothers and fathers differ in how concerned they are about sex appropriate behaviour? • What makes children continue to copy certain behaviours? • Do you think other children encourage sex typed behaviours?

  20. Check A group of students have a disagreement about which of the three definitions below can be applied to the terms • Modelling • Reinforcement • Identification • A person’s desire to be like another person or to be part of a particular social group • The process by which a response is strengthened • A procedure whereby a person observes another person and then attempts to imitate his or her behaviour.

  21. Activity Time • Use your text book to read and make notes on Social Learning Theory (pages 339-342) • For next lesson be prepared to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of SLT • Complete the gap fill on p38 of your green pack • Complete the terminology Sorting task onp37 of your green pack Extension Activity: Consider how SLT could be used to explain gender development - Complete p40 in your pack Stretch & Challenge: Compare & contrast how the psychodynamic, biological and Learning approach explain gender development

  22. Learning Objectives You should now be able to DescribeSocial Learning Theory You will be able to define the following key terms... Imitation Modelling Observation Vicarious reinforcement Identification You should be able to explain gender identification in terms of SLT TASK REMINDER • Use your text book to read and make notes on Social Learning Theory (pages 339-342) • For next lesson be prepared to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of SLT • Complete the gap fill on p38 of your green pack • Complete the Sorting task on onp37 of your green pack • Extension Activity: Consider how SLT could be used to explain gender development p40 in your pack Stretch & Challenge: Compare & contrast how the psychodynamic, biological and Learning approach explain gender development

  23. Top five things you have learned today HW: Complete today’s learning activities. Read ahead. It’s Bandura’s Bo Bo doll study next (BTB p350).

  24. Learning Approach Key study Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)

  25. By the end of today’s session

  26. Before we begin……. 1 List two behaviours you think might be learned by watching others 2 List two behaviours you think could not be learned in this way

  27. And now lets think! Which type of learning best explains how we display aggression? Can aggressive behaviour be learned by observation? See your task slip – time to think creatively!

  28. Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models Bandura, Ross & Ross (1961)

  29. Aims To investigate whether participants exposed to an aggressive model would reproduce aggressive acts resembling those of the models To investigate if boys would be more predisposed than girls towards imitating aggression

  30. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study The participants • 72 children (Stanford University nursery school) • 36 boys & 36 girls • age range 37 months - 69 months • Mean age 52 months (4 years 4 months)

  31. Method - an experiment • there were three conditions • 24 children in each condition

  32. The THREE CONDITIONS • Non aggressive condition • Aggressive condition • Control condition

  33. Participants Physical Aggression 1 – 5 Verbal aggression 1-5 Participants in the experimental and control conditions were matched individually on ratings of their aggressive behaviour in social interactions in their nursery school Participants were rated by both the teacher and the experimenter - both of whom knew the children well

  34. Confederates Twoadults: one male, one female served in the role as the model One female experimenter conducted the study for all 72 children

  35. 6 boys saw aggressive male 6 boys saw non-aggressive male 6 boys saw aggressive female 6 boys saw non-aggressive female

  36. 6 girls saw aggressive female 6 girls saw non-aggressive female 6 girls saw aggressive male 6 girls saw non-aggressive male

  37. Level 1 Independent Variable (IV) • aggressive or non-aggressive role model • Level 2 Independent variable (IV) • Same sex or opposite sex role model • Level 3 Independent variable…?

  38. The Experimental design

  39. Question What type of experimental design did Bandura use? What type of research method did Bandura use?

  40. Write a TESTABLE two-tailed hypothesis for the study Write a TESTABLE one-tailed hypothesis for the study

  41. In order to ensure that each group contained equally aggressive children they were all rated for aggression before the experiment Children were rated for • physical aggression • verbal aggression • aggression to inanimate objects • aggression inhibition (self control)

  42. The Procedure Phase one of the experiment Modelling the behaviour phase Children were taken one at a time to a separate part of the building by the female experimenter for…

  43. Phase 1 - Modelling The child was sat in one corner of the room and was encouraged to play with toys – potato printing and tinker toys. The model was sat in another corner. The model also played with toys. Either in a subdued way or aggressively depending on the experimental condition.

  44. Procedure Non-aggressive Condition The model assembled the tinker toys in a non-aggressive manner and ignored the Bobo doll Aggressive Condition The model began by assembling the Tinker Toys for about a minute. The model then turned to Bobo and spent the remaining time being aggressive towards it

  45. procedure The model performed a number of distinctive aggressive acts Physical Aggression • The model lay Bobo on its side and sat on itthen punched it repeatedly on the nose • The model hit Bobo on the head with the mallet • The model tossed Bobo in the air aggressively then kicked it around the room Verbal Aggressive Statements • ‘Sock him in the nose’ • ‘Hit him down’ • ‘Pow’ • ‘Kick him’ Verbal Non-Aggressive Statements • ‘He sure is a tough fella’

  46. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study What happened then? Phase two of the experiment The Arousal phase This was necessary to provoke the children

  47. The children were intentionally upset • In phase 2 the child was taken into a separate room laid out with a wonderful array of brand new toys. • Once the child had started to play with the toys they were told they had to stop…as these toys were intended for other children. • This upset many of the children