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  1. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Albert Bandura’s Social cognitive theory. Bandura believes that traditional behavioural views of learning, while accurate, are incomplete. Overlook important elements: the social influences on learning.

  2. ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY • Bandura distinguishes between the acquisition of knowledge (learning) and the observable performance based on that knowledge or (behaviour) • Both internal and external factors are important., interacting in the process of learning. • Reciprocal Determinism. An explanation of behaviour that emphasizes the mutual effects of the individual and the environment on each other. • Distinction between enactive and vicarious learning. Enactive learning is learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions. Consequences are seen as providing information about appropriate actions, creating expectations, and influencing motivation. • Vicarious learning is learning by observing others. Emphasizes the powerful effect that modelling and imitation can have on learning

  3. Two main modes of observational learning (OL). First, OL can take place through vicarious reinforcement. Second, Imitates the behaviour of a model even though the model receives no reinforcement or punishment while the observer is watching. Observation can be a very efficient learning process. Social Cognitive distinguishes between acquisition and performance. Four important elements to be considered in OL: Attention, retention, production, and motivation and reinforcement. Motivation and Reinforcement If there is some motivation or incentive to do. Reinforcement can play several roles in OL LEARNING BY OBSERVING OTHERS

  4. Three Forms of Reinforcement that encourage OL • 1. The observer may produce and receives direct reinforcement. • 2. The reinforcement need not be direct - it may be vicarious. • 3. Self-reinforcement or controlling your own reinforcers. We want our students to improve not because it leads to external rewards but because students value and enjoy their growing competence.

  5. Factors Influence OLWhat causes an individual to learn and perfomr modelled behaviours? • 1.The developmental level of the observer makes a difference in learning. Focus attention for longer periods, use memory strategies and motivate to practise. • 2. The status of the model. More likely to imitate the actions of others who seem competent, powerful, and prestigious. • 3. By watching others. Models who are seen as similar are more readily to imitated

  6. Factors influence OL (cont.) • All students need to be successful, capable models who look and sound like them, no matter what their ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or sex. • The last three influences involve goals and expectations • A. If they expect that certain actions of model will lead to particular outcomes • B. Value those outcomes or goals. Then pay more attention and try to reproduce their behaviours. • C. More likely to learn from the models if they have a high level of self-efficacy - if they believe they are capable of doing the actions needed to reach the goals or at leas of learning how to do so

  7. 1. Teaching new behaviours. Modelling can be applied deliberately in the classroom to teach mental skills and to broaden horizons - to teach new ways of thinking. Modelling, when applied deliberately, can be effective and efficient means of teaching new behaviour. Use all elements of OL, especially reinforcement and practice. Models who are the same age…. 2. Encouraging already-learned behaviours. All of us have had the experience of looking for cues from other people when we find ourselves in unfamiliar situations. Observing the behaviour of others tell us much of which our already learned-behaviours to use OBSERVATIONA LLEARNING IN TEACHINGFive possible outcomes

  8. 3. Strengthening or Weakening inhibitions.The ripple effect. If class members witness one student breaking a class rule and getting way with it, they may learn that undesirable consequences do not always follow rule breaking. The class may be less inhibited in the future about breaking this rule. When the teacher deal effectively with a rule breaker, especially a class leader, the idea of breaking this rule may be inhibited for other students viewing the interaction. Once the teacher has called for a particular action, following through is an important part of capitalizing on the ripple effect. O.L. IN TEACHING (cont.)Teaching new behaviours and attitudes, encouraging existing behaviours, changing inhibitions, directing attention, and arousing emotions.

  9. O.L. IN TEACHINGTeaching new behaviours and attitudes, encouraging existing behaviours, changing inhibitions, directing attention, and arousing emotions. • 4.Directing attention • 5. Arousing Emotion. OL people may develop emotional reactions to situations they themselves have never experienced. Students may be anxious when they are assigned to a certain teacher because they’ve heard frightening stories about how “mean” that teacher is. • Note that hearing and reading about a situation are also forms of observation • The guidelines will give you some ideas about using OL in the classroom.

  10. BEHVIOURAL VIEWS on learning emphasizes self-management - helping students gain control of their own learning. Students taught with classic behavioural methods seldom generalized their learning to new situations. Genenralization would be encouraged if students became partners in the behaviour change procedures. Self-management. The goal of education is to produce people who are capable of educating themselves, then students must learn to manage their own lives, set their own goals, and to provide their own reinforcement. They may help set goal set goals, observe their own work, keep records of it, and evaluate their own performance. SELF-REGULATION AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION

  11. COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION (CBM) AND SELF-INSTRUCTION • SELF-MANAGEMENT generally means getting students involved in the basic steps of a behaviour change program. • COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION adds an emphasis on thinking and self talk. • Remember CHILDREN GUIDE THEMSELVES THROUGH A TASK BY USING PRIVATE SPEECH. • In Cognitive behaviour modification, students are taught directly how to use self-instruction and many components include dialogue and interaction between teacher and student, modelling, guided discovery, motivational strategies, feedback, careful matching of the task with the student’s developmental level and other principles of good teaching. Students do seem to generalize the skills developed with CBM to new learning situations

  12. Provide an overview of several strategies for changing classroom behviour. Should be aware that these strategies are tools that may be used RESPONSIBLY OR IRRESPONSIBLY. Some issues should keep in mind. 1. Ethical Issues . What are goals? How do these goals fit with those of the school as a whole? Might students be rewarded for the ‘wrong’ thing, though it seems ‘right’ at first? By what criteria should strategies be chosen? What effect will a strategy have on the individual involved? Is too much control being given to the teacher or to a majority? PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

  13. PROBLEMS AND ISSUES (cont’) • Goals. Whenever possible emphasis should be placed on academic learning. Academic improvement generalize to other situations more successfully than do changes in classroom conduct. • Strategies. Punishment can have negative side effects. And is unnecessary and even unethical when positive approaches, which a fewer potential dangers, might work as well. • When simpler, less-restrictive procedures fail, then more complicated procedures should be tried. • Consider the impact of the strategy on the individual student. • Home-based reinforcement program might be very harmful to students who have a history of being severely punished at home for bad reports from school. So reports of unsatisfactory progress at school could lead to increased abuse at home.

  14. CRITICISM OF BEHAVIOURAL METHODS • Properly used can be effective tools to help students learn academically grow in self-sufficiency. • Effective tolls do not automatically produce excellent work. • The indiscriminate use of even the best tools can lead to difficulties. • Rewarding for learning will cause them to lose interest in learning for its own sake. • Take into account the effects of a reward system on the individula, also consider the impact on other students. • Using a reward program or giving one student increased attention may have a detrimental effect on the other students in the classroom.