http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHi2dxSf9hw Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura
Learning Outcomes By the end of this lesson you should be able to: • DescribeSocial Learning Theory • Apply Social Learning Theory and behaviourist explanations of learning to crime • Describe and evaluate Research Studies to support the social Learnig explanation of crime
Social Learning Theory • Is the theory that we learn behaviour through observation. • Criminal behaviour is seen as no different from any other type of behaviour- learnt through observation. • Individuals learn from role ‘models’.
Key Terms Observational Learning Vicarious (Indirect) Reinforcement Vicarious (Indirect) Punishment Model Imitation Mental Representation (Cognition) For your Notes Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Stages • Attention • Retention • Reproduction • Motivation • Imitation
Model Characteristics • Age • Gender • Status
Exam Board Mark Scheme • The role of direct reinforcement in aggression • The role of indirect reinforcement in aggression • The role of observational learning • Modelling (e.g. stages, characteristics of the role model) • Key studies into the social learning theory of aggression (e.g. Bandura et al’s ‘Bobo doll’ study)
Research Study • Bandura et al. (1961) • Video Clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zerCK0lRjp8
Imitation is due to the consequence of the observed behaviour. If it is…………… • reinforced then children are more likely to imitate. • punished then children are less likely to imitate. The observed reinforcement and punishment. Is vicarious.
Bandura variation study 1963 Group 1~ The aggression from the adult was REINFORCED by praise Group 2~ The aggression from the adult was PUNISHED (told off) Group 3~ The aggression from the adult had no response (control group)
Later children were able to play with the ‘bobo doll’: Group 1~ Children imitated many of the verbal and physical behaviours (aggressive reinforced model) Group 2~ Children imitated the behaviour the least (aggressive punishment model) Group 3~ Children imitated the model some of the time (control model- neither reinforced or punished)
What does all that mean? Aggressive and violent behaviour can be learnt from observing the behaviour of models. Individuals learn from watching the behaviour of those around them, even when they themselves are not being directly reinforced.
It has been estimated that a child entering secondary school will have seen 8,000 murders and 100,000 other violent acts on TV. Eron (1995)
Step OneDefine the theory Bandura outlined Social learning theory. SLT proposes that we learn by ………
Step Two Outline the Rules of the Theory? Do you know the rules of social learning theory? • Write them down • ARRMI
The rules • Behaviour has to be noticed (ATTENTION) • The behaviour has to be remembered (RETENTION) • the person has to be capable of reproducing the behaviour (REPRODUCTION) • There has to be a motivation to repeat the behaviour (MOTIVATION) • Leading to IMITATION
Modelling Refers to the behaviour being demonstrated as well as being reproduced
Further more • Children/people copy • They make a choice about who they copy • They are more likely to copy a higher status same sex role model • They are most likely to copy if they see their model rewarded. (Vicarious reinforcement)
Step ThreeApply social learning theory to explaining crime It is time to link it all together. Be Specific. This is means taking these rules and suggesting that, as this is how most people learn most things, that this is how people learn to become criminals! Furthermore it can explain why people choose to become criminals. (i.e. if a person strongly identifies with a role model, they really want to be like them, if the role model is a criminal then……
D. O. A. • Define the theory • Outline the theory (fully) • Apply the theory (be specific to AT LEAST ONE element of the theory and link to the question)
You will now have to describe the process that goes on when a person decides to copy a certain behaviour. You also need to describe the further processes involved in continuing to copy that behaviour to the point that the person themselves become a criminal
Activity • Read a story about a boy of 15 named Joe • Use what you know of social learning theory to explain what happened to Joe that resulted in him committing a number of criminal acts. • See your work sheet
Joe’s story Joe was a lonely boy. For the early part of his life he had gone to 6 schools as his father, a soldier travelled around with his different postings. Then Joe’s dad left him and his mum. His dad then had a baby with a girl only 9 years older than Joe. Joe was very angry with his dad. Although he was also angry at his mum for letting it happen. A local gang had allowed Joe to join them. Taz the gang leader often asked him to do little tasks for him such as sending messages or buying sweets for him. Taz wouldn’t let the others go too far bullying or teasing Joe .Joe wished he could be like Taz. Everyone liked him, he made them all laugh but was so tough no one would ever disagree with him. Taz had respect. No one respected Joe and from his point of view no one liked him either. When Taz was short of money he would shoplift what he needed. When Taz was angry he would cause damage to property in the park. When Taz was bored he would steal a car. It wasn’t long before Joe would join Taz in the stolen cars. One day when Joe wanted to impress a girl he thought he would steal a car by himself.
Unpick the story and label the elements of social learning theory. noticing copying choosing a high status role model motivation
Take each rule and say how it applies to Joe 1 Children/people copy So Joe is quite likely to copy the behaviour he sees around him anyway 2. They make a choice about who they copy Joe has chosen to hang around with Taz he does this repeatedly so having chosen it it must be reinforcing in some way 3. They are more likely to copy a higher status same sex role model Joe looks up to Taz he is older people like him and respect him Taz is therefore an older high status role model (within the cultural norms that Joe is living in) he is also male so it is very likely that Joe would choose to copy him 4. They are most likely to copy if they see their model rewarded. (Vicarious reinforcement) Joe sees Taz get rewarded in many ways. He gets a buz when he shoplifts or steals cars. He gets praise from the gang he gets things for free and he seems to look happier after he has vented his anger through vandalism. Most of all he is liked and has respect. That is exactly the type of reward Joe would like
5. Behaviour has to be noticed Joe notices everything Taz does because he admires him and spends time with him. Stories about events are often reputed to show off to others. He could hardly fail to notice 6. The behaviour has to be remembered The events are too exciting to forget 7. The person has to be capable of reproducing the behaviour Joe is able bodied and has been watching Taz drive for months 8. There has to be a motivation to repeat the behaviour Joe is angry at his dad, getting into trouble is perfect revenge. Joe wants respect being a bad boy gets respect. Joe wants excitement its exciting. Joe wants to impress a girl. Joe has plenty of motivation to continue to copy Taz s behaviour In the eyes of the law Joe is now a criminal if he internalises this label he will be a criminal in every sense
Although social learning theory is a theory in its own right it shares many concepts with traditional behaviourism/learning theory. • SLT does not dispute the role of primary and secondary reinforcement in learning. Nor does it dispute the role of punishment. • However SL theorists disagree with behaviourist over the issue of the person making a choice intheir role model. • They claim that most behaviour is learnt by copying but accept that a lot of behaviour is learnt through direct experiences of reinforcement and punishment. And they agree that once a person has chosen to copy a behaviour they are more likely to continue to use that behaviour if they find it reinforcing. • So when you discuss the processes of social learning theory in criminal behaviour do not be afraid to use behaviourist concepts.
Evaluate the SLT Explanation of CrimeCASTLES • Strengths • Weaknesses