Egyptian Pyramids The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008.Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser (constructed 2630 BCE–2611 BCE) which was built during the third dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry. The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built. The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.
Egyptian Architecture • Geographical Conditions:- • Egypt's land varies from the strip of a fertile land in the valley (Black Land, Red Land) of river NILE, then arid region and then a vast desert. • North – Mediterravran Sea. • East - Extends up to Red Sea- • Major role in spreading trade to eastern & western Countries • Nile- Longest, mightiest life giving river • Conduit of ancient culture and essence of Egypt. • Its green valley is the cradle of civilization. • Egypt is called Gift of Nile. • Cities along Nile– Both for dead & live.
2. Geological Conditions:- • Architecture depends upon- Availability of building materials. • Rich clay was abundant from Nile delta. Used to make Sun dried Bricks. To strengthen , it was mixed with palm leaves, reeds etc. • Papyrus – grown in marshes, used to make Boats, Baskets, paper (G.K papuros)for scribes. • Fine lime stone was quarried from mokattam Hills, from Tura near Saqqara. For constriction of pyramids. • Sand stone was plenty at silica – used to construct finest temples & Sacred sarcophagus (stone coffin). • Red and grey granite was used to make columns a architraves. • Quarrying was done by copper chisles and timber wedges . • Slabs were transported by placing them an sledges and men pulled them with ropes and boats. • Only temples and tombs were built of stones ,house & palaces built by –mud bricks. • Tomb – eternal abode. • Home – Temporary place. • That is why only very little remains of towns of old kingdom, capital Memphis ad of Heliopolis the city of sun are found.
3. Climatic Conditions :- • Only two seasons spring & Summer. • Climate is very warm & bright .(snow & frost unknown) • Bright sunshine – interiors are well it through windows and roof slits. • Led to few windows. • Massive brick walls to counteract intense theat. • Plain walls provided surface for heiro glyphs. • Storm & rain very rare – flat roofs used to enjoy fresh breeze. Religious Ceremonies .
Religious Conditions :- (Culture) • Mysterious traditions & religious rites were reproduced in architecture in the form of tombs & temples. • Egyptians were worshipper of gods and hevenly bodies, like, sun,moon,stars and animals as embodiment of gods. • So consisted many temples, with in great enclosure consist of planed count, hypostyle hall- dark mysterious chamber as chapel. • Early history of Egypt distinction between the gods and the almighty kings known as pharons – sons of sun . • Pharons were carrying insignia – signs of Royalty, a false Beard, Crown, Scared cobra brow ornament and scriptures. • Performed dual functions kings, priests, remain as gods. • Egyptian gods were frequently associated in triads, namely. i). Great Theban triad. a) Amon (meaning the hidden one) b) Mut (his consort) mother of all things. c) khons (their son) –the moon god. • Memphis triad a) ptan a creator b) sekhment (his consort) –goddes of war c) Neferten (their son) The governing idea of religion of ancient Egyptians was their strong belief in future life to secure immorality of the soul the pharons preserved their dead bodies in the royal pyramids and nobles is the mastabas - the modest tombs and the poor were simply buried in pit grave with out being mummified.
Social conditions:- • Egyptian litrature has been preserved on papyrus plant & tablets. • It was a custom to record to historical events on temples and social matters on tombs. • Pharons employed prisoner of slaves for various activities , Like agriculture, B.C, mines, toiling on boats, Building materials(pictorial representation on massive walls). • The wall sculptures show – Egyptians at war, hunting, fishing, at chase, peasant s in lion clothes, tilling is farm fields, servents bringing crops, working is weaving sheds, Workshop etc. • As a principal pharos owned there whole country, and gained gods of death. • They studied astronomy, invented 365 day calendar, Science, Medicine and Surgery, pottery, Wearing, Glass bowling, jewellery making, musical instruments, furniture. They produced, poetry, hymns. Memories educational works.,Luminous stone, and novels. They also played jenet is game of drought, mehen or game of serpent .
Historical condition:- • King or pharons known as king of Egypt practiced religious sites, encouraged ,art and literature, handicrafts & maintained general welfare of people. • Pharos consist of thirty dynasties 1 x (3000*2130) • Capital city Memphis was found by king menes. • Tombs or mastabas were built is sundried beaches, lily an royal pyramids were contacted. E.g. Great pyramids of pharaohs, Cheops, cepheren, my Kerinos at Giza near Cairo. Followed by Mary other at Abusive Saqqara. These pyramids are still at enigma to the modern world, equally enigmatic are the sphinxes. The famous is the sphinx of king coherent Giza. IN Dynasties x1 to x11 pharons , shifted their capital at Thebes. Pyramids were built is crude bricks in the interiors and stone masonry at the outer facing.
Amenophis III - • Buitr temple at Luxor, brought grandeurs to temple at karaka. By adding pylons & avenues of sphinxes. Amenophis IV (1364-1347 BC) Known as Akhenaton founded new capital at tell- al- Amarna, between Thebes and Memphis an bank of lute. It was named as Aten the logion of disc. He called himself son of God. Ad this queen leefrtu is told to have hop graceful needle & charming Beauty. The ruins of places extended more than room. The layer courtyard was sunounded by huge statues of the king and his queen, a harem a layer room which more than 500 pillars. Aklinathn consulted temple of Aten in a sacred enclosure. Measuring 300m by 800m. Which was open to daylight from one and to other, as against old additional temples. It relief woke throw light as grander of sun worshipping ceremony. King & Queen rode cannot from palace to temple king used to bean incenses pour water an altar as a religions salute . At maruAten Buitr no of artificial lakes and zoological garden. This how would of flowers, bird and wale plants boupit a gralesponrenity and more cheerful way of life, reign labtedanond 15 year. When he died the presto who were discontententeddeshoyed the city of Armonk.
Ramese – I (1314 BC) founder of 19h dynasty • Consulted Great hall of Karnack and Ramessum at Thebes. • Assyrian empire now threatened the Egypt, invaded and sacked Thebes in 663 BC, from 525 Bc, from Egypt was under pension province it fell to Greeks is 332 B.C. Alexander of Macedonia rescued Egyptian from tyrant rules was hearted us son of Aman. • He founded Alexandria as the capital main cantle of Greek Culture, Alexander dredis Last rules of Dagnartg was Queen Cocopah. Who shed power at first was he two brother husbands Ptolemy XII & XIV and late Ptolemy Xo Caesarian her son by Roman leader folios cease After her death Egypt came under Roman who milled till 393 A.D. In AD 32y drlkhianity was delayed as static religion by Emperor Constantine. Cheueles were concreted under Justihlan(AD. 527-565) it achieved stable amines nation. In ad 640- 1517 Egypt was under Arabs and custom was Muslim Arabs turtles neled in succession built many mosque & palaces. In 1881 it was under British & finely in 1922 it ceases a independent stile.
BUILDING TECHNIQUES AND PROCENSES:- • Egypt and near east Natufians used simple dry stone techniques to a limited extent, but building was predominantly in mud Brick. • Main bricks were formed by hand or occasionally moulded and then sundried mud was used as plastic material for building up casuses. Fixed features – such as stroage bins, platforms, hearths and seats were modelled in site. • Occassionally mud was mined which straw and foundations with stone to overcome wetness. • Trabeated system – Roofs were flat, made of timber Beams & columns covered with matting of clay. • Plastered floors and walls were common mud and lime plaster was finished in variety of ways including painting , brushingor setting with terrazo. • Egypt made transition from substantial vegetable material like reed, papyrus, palm founds & matting to tectonic forms of mud brids and stome • Use of local resources, metallugy lacked bronze did not appear until middle kingdom. Use of reeds, papyrus which mud have produced the characteristic EgyptionGeoge cornice volutes etc.
Quter walls were inclined and became thinner and thinner as moved up because of alternate shrinkage and expansion of soil. Caused by annual inundations,- principal characteristic of Egyptian Architecture, whether in brick or in stone. Some times fiber an reed mats were placed between brick courses to reinforce them particularly at angles. • Pyramids were built an bed rock which was leveled to receive them and side scrupulously oriented with cardinal points. The whole pyramid was first constructed in step like tiers, unit the true pyramidal form was created to wale and bring to their ultimate shape with finely dressed facings, placed at chosen angles of inclination. The blocks of Great pyramid of cheops at gizeh then cairo, weighing -2 ½ tons are thickly bedded in lime mortar. Corbelling and flat stone beams were used to create interior chamber.
EGYPTAINS :- • Did not know of pulley, tool used for raising and turning stone blocks was lever, wooden sledges were used to transfer blocks Overland. • Egyptians used copper chisels with flanged blades, and saws, britle. (iron and bronze not available) • Temple of upper Egypt- was made of sand stone from quarries at Gebel Silish, capable of spanning greater widths for roofing purposes. • Egyptian columns have vegeteble origins- • Shafts- bundle of palm stems. • capitals- lotus bud, papyrus flower, ubiquitous palm Temples were built of basalt.
The well preserved Temple of Horus at Edfu is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture.
The Giza pyramid complex • The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient monuments is located some 8 kilometres (5 mi) inland into the desert from the old town of Giza on the Nile, some 20 kilometers (12 mi) southwest of Cairo city center. This Ancient Egyptiannecropolis consists of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Cheops), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren), and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, and the Great Sphinx. • The Pyramids of Giza • The pyramids, which were built in the Fourth Dynasty, testify to the power of the pharaonic religion and state. The Great Pyramid, which was probably completed c. 2580 BC, is the oldest and largest of the pyramids, and is the only surviving monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The pyramid of Khafre is believed to have been completed around 2532 BC, at the end of Khafre's reign. The date of construction of Menkaure's pyramid is unknown, because Menkaure's reign has not been accurately defined, but it was probably completed in the 26th century BC.
Popular culture leads people to believe that Pyramids are highly confusing, with many tunnels within the pyramid to create confusion for grave robbers. This is not true. The shafts of pyramids are quite simple, mostly leading directly to the tomb. However, there are sometimes additional tunnels, but these were used for the builders to understand how far they could dig the tomb into the crust of the Earth. Also, it is popular thought that due to grave robbers, future Kings were buried in the Valley of the Kings to help keep them hidden. This is also false, as the Pyramid construction continued for many Dynasties, just on a smaller scale. Also, grave robbers did not appear in the Old Kingdom, when the Giza Pyramids were constructed. Rather, it appeard much later in Egyptian history. Finally, the pyramid construction was stopped due to economic factors, not theft. It was much cheaper to bury the Kings in the Valley of the Kings, rather than construct huge, seemingly useless pyramids.
KarnakMain article: Karnak The temple complex of Karnak is located on the banks of the River Nile some 2.5 kilometers (1.5 mi) north of Luxor. It consists of four main parts, the Precinct of Amon-Re, the Precinct of Montu, the Precinct of Mut and the Temple of Amenhotep IV (dismantled), as well as a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, and several avenues of ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amon-Re and Luxor Temple. The hypostyle hall of Karnak Temple The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction work began in the 16th century BC. Approximately 30 pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features is overwhelming.
The Luxor Temple is a huge ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). Construction work on the temple began during the reign of Amenhotep III in the 14th century BC. Horemheb and Tutankhamun added columns, statues, and friezes – and Akhenaten had earlier obliterated his father's cartouches and installed a shrine to the Aten – but the only major expansion effort took place under Ramesses II some 100 years after the first stones were put in place. Luxor is thus unique among the main Egyptian temple complexes in having only two pharaohs leave their mark on its architectural structure.
The temple proper begins with the 24 metre (79 ft) high First Pylon, built by Ramesses II. The pylon was decorated with scenes of Ramesses's military triumphs (particularly the Battle of Qadesh); later pharaohs, particularly those of the Nubian and Ethiopian dynasties, also recorded their victories there. This main entrance to the temple complex was originally flanked by six colossal statues of Ramesses – four seated, and two standing – but only two (both seated) have survived. Modern visitors can also see a 25 metre (82 ft) tall pink granite obelisk: this one of a matching pair until 1835, when the other one was taken to Paris where it now stands in the centre of the Place de la Concorde. Through the pylon gateway leads into a peristyle courtyard, also built by Ramesses II.
This area, and the pylon, were built at an oblique angle to the rest of the temple, presumably to accommodate the three pre-existing barque shrines located in the northwest corner. After the peristyle courtyard comes the processional colonnade built by Amenhotep III – a 100 metre (328 ft) corridor lined by 14 papyrus-capital columns. Friezes on the wall describe the stages in the Opet Festival, from sacrifices at Karnak at the top left, through Amun's arrival at Luxor at the end of that wall, and concluding with his return on the opposite side. The decorations were put in place by Tutankhamun: the boy pharaoh is depicted, but his names have been replaced with those of Horemheb. Beyond the colonnade is a peristyle courtyard, which also dates back to Amenhotep's original construction. The best preserved columns are on the eastern side, where some traces of original colour can be seen. The southern side of this courtyard is made up of a 36-column hypostyle court that leads into the inner sanctums of the temple, which begin with a dark chamber not achechamber.