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Elusive Eden: A New History of California, fourth edition CHAPTER EIGHT: MEXICAN CALIFORNIA, 1821-1848 PowerPoint Presentation
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Elusive Eden: A New History of California, fourth edition CHAPTER EIGHT: MEXICAN CALIFORNIA, 1821-1848

Elusive Eden: A New History of California, fourth edition CHAPTER EIGHT: MEXICAN CALIFORNIA, 1821-1848

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Elusive Eden: A New History of California, fourth edition CHAPTER EIGHT: MEXICAN CALIFORNIA, 1821-1848

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  1. Elusive Eden: A New History of California, fourth editionCHAPTER EIGHT: MEXICAN CALIFORNIA, 1821-1848

  2. Liberal democrats began revolution in New Spain 1810 • End of financial support for Alta California • Destroyed trade with New Spain • Trade with foreigners increased • Spain accepted Mexican independence September 28, 1821

  3. Battle for control of new government between royalists, democrats • First govn headed by royalist Emperor Agustín Iturbide • Ousted 1822 • Sick of kings

  4. 1824 Federal Republic of Mexico established • New democratic constitution • elected representatives • patterned after U.S. form of govn • departure for majority of population: few Mexicans literate • royalist, democratic factions vied for control of govn

  5. New liberal democratic constitution introduced changes • Included rights for indigenous people • Permitted trade with Spain's enemies • Catholic converts could own land, serve in office • Offered new status to settlers

  6. Alta California now Mexican territory governed by Mexican Congress • Same as U.S. system • Administration lax, underfunded • Possibilities for advancement led to rivalries

  7. 1822 Itrurbidegovn established local govn for Alta California • Establishment of Mexican Government in California • Appointed governor • diputación (provincial assembly) advised governor • ayuntamiento (towncouncil) for pueblos (San José, Los Angeles) • province given 1 representative in Mexican Congress

  8. Luis Antonio Argüello first Mexican governor • hijo del país (native son) • focused on rebuilding trade • 1822 last Mexican governor (Solá) signed 3-year contract with British traders • William E. P. Hartnell and Hugh McCullough, agents for John Begg & Co. • Contracted w missions for hides and tallow

  9. Argüello signed with U.S. traders • William Gale, agent for Bryant & Sturgis • Soon cornered hide and tallow trade • Gave large land grants 1823, 1824 • 1825 José María Echeandía appointed governor • Replaced Argüello • First appointed by new republic

  10. Echeandía refused to live in Monterey, liked San Diego better • Intensified north-south rivalries • Inherited series of problems • Military chaotic • Many sentenced to Baja for crimes in Spain, New Spain • Govn New Spain, Mexico owed back pay

  11. 1829 Monterey soldier-convict Joaquín Solís led mutiny over backpay • Marched south to overthrow governor Echeandía • Echeandía raised own army • Mutineers ran home • Soldier-convicts disrupted colony • Soldiers stole, fought with civilians • Missionaries complained about attacks on Indians, esp. women, children

  12. Echeandía convinced Mexican Congress to stop convict dumping • 1826 Jedediah Strong Smith entered province • Leading fur trappers from Rocky Mountains across Mojave Desert to Mission San Gabriel • first Americans to enter California overland from east

  13. planned to trap beaver • Echeandía threw in jail several weeks, ordered back to U.S. • Echeandía worried about Indians • Arrived after 1824 Chumash uprising • Making plans for secularization • Agreed with Mexican republican principles re native rights • Plans upset missionaries

  14. 1826 decreed provisional secularization • Applied to San Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey • Replaced missionaries with secular priests • Neophytes and families released from mission authority • Missionaries complained, called it "spoliation" • Few Indians left • Delayed secularization until 1830

  15. Missions a thorny problem • Missions kept natives dependent • Mission control of best lands, labor blocked colonization • Missions produced only revenues in Alta California • January 1831 third Mexican revolution, Echeandía recalled

  16. Colonel Manuel Victoria replaced • Anti-democratic, anti-clerical, anti-Indian, anti-Californio • Rescinded Echeandía secularization orders • Dissolved diputación • Quarreled with Californio elite • Set off series of Alta California revolutions

  17. Southern Californians declared pronunciamiento November 29, 1831 • Leaders Juan Bandini, Pío Pico, José Carrillo • Demanded Victoria removed • Confrontation at Cahuenga Pass • Victoria wounded • Agreed to return power to Echeandía • Victoria left January 17, 1832

  18. Southern Californios argued over Echeandía's powers • Wanted division of military, civil authority • territorial diputación in Los Angeles elected Pío Pico • Echeandía blocked • Northern Californios, Victoria's secretary Agustín Zamorano fought Echeandía • Raised army to overthrow • Solution: Zamorano military commander above San Fernando, Echeandía below

  19. January 1833 new gov General José Figueroa arrived • comandante general of Sonora, Sinaloa • military judge • mestizo origins, favored secularization, Indian rights • supposed to promote colonization • forgave leaders of anti-Victoria revolutionaries

  20. Figueroa focused on blocking foreign advances • New assignment for commander San Francisco presidio Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo • Sent to north to scout Fort Ross • Find site for northern presidio • Find settlers to consolidate Mexican hold on northern frontier • Took large land grant south of Russians

  21. Vallejo formed civilian towns at Petaluma, Santa Rosa • Promoted cattle ranching • Increased Mexican presence on northern border • Helped convince Russians to sell Fort Ross

  22. Secularization of the Missions • Long anti-cleric tradition in New Spain, Mexico • 1813 Spain ordered secularization of 10-year-old missions • Mexican revolution disrupted

  23. Turmoil after independence slowed implementation • Critics demanded secularization • Reformers push for Indian rights in Mexico • Californios attacked mission cruelty, slavery

  24. Rancheros just as exploitative • Expected secularization to release lands, native laborers • By 1833, missions already underfunded, falling apart

  25. The GómezFarías Plan • New revolution in Mexico when José Figueroa arrived • New elections 1833 • Created coalition between military, liberal democrats • General Antonio López de Santa Anna headed army faction • Valentín Gómez Farías ledrepublicans

  26. Santa Anna elected president • Took vacation, left vp Farias in charge • Farias favored secularization, native rights • August 1833 ordered secularization Baja, Alta California missions • Clerical authority over Indians dissolved • Missions converted to churches • Missionaries replaced by priests

  27. April 1834 introduced plan to distribute mission land, property • Divided among neophytes, certain Californios, soldiers, naturalized foreigners • Opponents eventually defeated Farías plan

  28. Farías ordered colonization expedition 250 settlers from Mexico City • Commander friend José María Híjar, new governor of Alta California • Supposed to replace Figueroa, take up mission lands between San Francisco Bay, Fort Ross

  29. Second in command friend José María Padrés • Set off April 1834 • Carried copy of August 1833 secularization plan

  30. Secularization Under Figueroa • Figueroa opposed immediate secularization • Feared effects on Natives • Californios would steal their lands, property • Californios pressuring for complete secularization

  31. Fr. Narciso Durán advised delay • Alta California economy still dependent on missions • August 9, 1834 Figueroa, diputación drafted own secularization plan • Plan called for gradual secularization • 10 of 21 missions would become secular villages

  32. missionaries in those villages replaced by priests • 6 of remaining 11 secularized 1835 • Last 5 in 1836 • Figueroa plan distributed land, property • Mission lands, goods granted to neophyte families • Each received 33 acres of farm land, rights to common pasture

  33. Divided half of mission herds among neophyte families, • Appointees would oversee remainder of lands, livestock • Governor could order mission Indians to remain, work on undistributed mission lands • Provision satisfied Californios while preserving hide and tallow trade

  34. Redistribution underway when Figueroa learned about Híjar-Padrés plan • Hijar party in San Diego • Padrés party en route to Monterey • By then, Santa Anna resumed presidency • Cancelled Híjar's appointment as governor • Cancelled Padrés's appointment as military comandante

  35. Híjar and Padrés went north to Sonoma with colonizing party • Colonists angry with Figueroa, rumors of revolution • By May 1835 Figueroa dispersed Sonoma colony • Vallejo arrested Hijar, Padres, shipped to Mexico City • Figueroa sick, resigned

  36. Turned office over to José Castro • Figueroa plan continued • Appointed Californio elites to protect Indian rights, oversee distribution • Leaders included Pío Pico in south, Mariano Vallejo in north • Spirit of plan ignored • Missions stripped of goods, equipment

  37. Allotments to neophytes too small • Most sold out to Californios • Local alcaldes made no efforts to protect Indian freedom, property rights • Local rancheros took best grazing, farmlands • Indians helped destroy missions too • Ensured system would never return • Some refused to stay, work mission lands

  38. Mission Indians hung around towns, worked for rancheros • Others moved inland, joined interior tribes • 1830s-1850s, led raids on Mexican ranchos, towns • Secularization did not improve Hispanic-Indian relations • Mexico continued Spain's Indian policies

  39. Raided interior tribes for mission labor, converts • Failed to pacify interior tribes • Continued Indian raiding held down colonization efforts • Helped Americans take control after 1840

  40. Political Turmoil • José Castro tenure brief, replaced by Nicolas Gutiérrez • Acting governors until Mexico could send replacement for Figueroa • 1836 Colonel Mariano Chico took over • Lasted 3 months • Returned to Mexico after local revolution • sent back to Mexico

  41. Californios upset with government in Mexico • 1824 abandoned liberal constitution • Nicolas Gutiérrez replaced Chico • Quarreled with diputación and Juan Bautista Alvarado • Alvarado, José Castro raised army of 75 Californios • American trapper/businessman Isaac Graham raised another 50

  42. Marched on Monterey to overthrow Gutiérrez • Gutiérrez surrendered • diputación elected Alvarado governor, Mariano Vallejo as comandante general • Alvarado quarreled with José Castro, his uncle, Carlos Carrillo • Solution: two governors, one for north, one for south

  43. 1838 Mexico formally appointed Alvarado, Vallejo • Regime lasted four years • Secularization ended under Alvarado • Rancho economy grew • Economy depended on hide and tallow

  44. The Hide-and-Tallow Trade • Rancho economy direct result of mission system • Missions controlled 10 million acres, thousands cattle, sheep, horses • Developed profitable trade within Spanish empire, illegal trade with Brits, Americans • Illegal trade grew during Mexican revolution • Mexican officials encouraged for tax revenues, support of missions

  45. Mexico opened Monterey, San Diego • Ordered import duties on foreign goods • Local officials skipped collection to encourage trade • Granted land to foreigners, same purpose • Governor Argüello allowed British, American companies to build warehouses

  46. Firms linked California with British and American companies • Supported Boston's shoe manufacturers • Strengthened California's ties to New England • By 1830s, British, America ships key to California economy

  47. 1840 Richard Henry Dana published Two Years Before the Mast --Crewed 16 months on Pilgrim --Ships filled with trade goods --Business stopped when ships arrived • Convinced foreign merchants Abel Stearns, Thomas Larkin to open stores --Traded in hides, $2 or $3 each

  48. hide-and-tallow trade only source of revenues for Mexican govn --smuggling drained ¼, 1/3 of import duties --helped create ranchero society --rancheros had ships, didn't need to diversify economy

  49. Rancho and Pueblo Society • Popular mythology about rancho culture downplayed negative aspects • Great rancheros did enjoy benefits, but minority of population --60-80% of non-Indian population mestizo pobladores --soldiers, ex-soldiers, colonists --most lived in pueblos, near presidios

  50. --owned town lots, small homes --others own small land grants, subsistence agriculture --small land-owners might also work for wages --frontier life: hard, few luxuries • pobladore families small, 3-4 children --infant mortality rates high