Chapter 3 Section 3 Middle Colonies
Change is Coming • 1649, Charles I is beheaded • 1660, Charles II, son of Charles I, becomes king
England and the Colonies • Between the colony of Virginia and the New England colonies were lands the Dutch controlled.
New Amsterdam That’s a bargain! • Located on Manhattan Island (present day New York City) • Along the Hudson River • Purchased from the Manhates people for beads and other goods. • Excellent sea port • Soon became the center of shipping to and from America
Peter Stuyvesant • Governor of the colony • Mean • People didn’t like him • When the English came to fight and take over the colony no one helped him
I Surrender! • No contest • King Charles II gives the colony to his brother, the Duke of York • The colony is renamed New York • The owner of the colony, the proprietor, makes all the decisions, owns all the lands, and controlled the government
PROMISES, PROMISES! • Duke of York promised the Dutch colonists freedom of religion and allowed them to keep their property • As a result, most Dutch colonists decided to remain in New York • Germans, Swedes, Native Americans, and Puritans all lived in New York • Included about 300 enslaved Africans • New Amsterdam (New York) became one of the fastest growing locations in the colony.
Government of New York • 1683 • Colonists demanded a representative government like that of other colonies. • Duke of York resisted the idea, but people of New York would not give up. • 1691 • English government allowed New York to elect a legislature.
New Jersey • Southern part of New York • Given to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret • Named after the island of Jersey, in England, where Carteret was born
New Jersey Sir George Carteret • To attract settlers the men promised: • large tracts of land • Freedom of religion • Trial by jury • Representative assembly • Assembly would make local laws and set taxes Lord John Berkeley
Pennsylvania • Penn’s father had once given the king a lot of money • Penn asked for land in America to pay the debt • Was to be almost as big as England
Quakers • Dissenters • Pacifists • Each person could experience religious truth directly • Meant that church services and officials were not necessary • No one was better than anyone else
Philly • Philadelphia • City of Brotherly Love • Penn designed the city himself, making him the first town planner in America
Native American Policies • Penn believed the land belonged to the Native Americans • He believed they should be paid for their land
Government in Pennsylvania • Penn advertised the land throughout Europe • 1683, more than 3,000 English, Welsh, Irish, Dutch, and German settlers were living in Pennsylvania • 1701 Charter of Liberties • Penn granted colonists the right to elect representatives to the legislative assembly
Delaware • Southernmost part of Pennsylvania were called the Three Lower Counties • 1703 Charter of Privileges • Allowed them to form their own legislature • Then, they became their own colony - Delaware
Bread Basket These colonies are often called the “Bread Basket” This is because their main crops are grains which are used to make bread.