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Chapter 3 Section 3

Chapter 3 Section 3

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Chapter 3 Section 3

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  1. Chapter 3 Section 3 • Religious and Political Changes in Europe

  2. Religious and Political Changes in Europe • The Protestant Reformation • Started by Martin Luther (Germany 1517) • Goal was to reform the Catholic Church • Too much power to Pope • Catholics not following teachings of the church • Spread to other areas of Europe • Printing Press (very important) • Allowed people to read scripture/interpret themselves • (Protestant- the ones that reformed)

  3. Martin Luther Printing Press

  4. Many Struggles • Two points of view • Catholics thought: defying the authority of the Pope • Protestant thought: reforming the church • 1500’s were a time of constant warfare between Catholics and Protestants • French Protestants known as Huguenots • English Protestants were members of the Anglican church (headed by the King of England Henry VIII), a blend of Protestant and Catholic religions

  5. Conflict between Spain and England • Spain was the biggest defender of Catholicism • King Phillip II fought against the Protestant Reformation (headed the Catholic (or Counter Reformation) • England headed by Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry VIII) • First women ruler of England • Promoted peace between the Protestants and Catholics • Sea Dogs • Queen Elizabeth promoted the raiding of Spanish ships carrying gold and wealth (to hurt Spain's economy) • Sir Francis Drake most famous (first Englishman to circumnavigate the world and penetrating the Strait of Magellan)

  6. Henry VIII Elizabeth I

  7. Sir Francis Drake

  8. Spanish Armada • Invasion fleet to counter the Sea Dogs • 130 ships/30,000 sailors and soldiers • Goal: to invade England, overthrow the Queen Elizabeth and the Anglican Church • Problems with the Armada • Commander (a cousin of Philip II) not qualified • Spanish port of Cadiz raided by Sir Francis Drake, this delayed the Armada • English ships were smaller and faster, more maneuverable

  9. Spanish Armada cont. • Battle on the Sea • July 1588, Spanish and English fleets meet near England’s coast • English had a surprise…loaded ships with explosives, sailed into center of Armada at night, exploded them causing the Spanish ships to scatter. • Spanish ships defeated the next day. Of those that remained, many were destroyed by a storm before they could return to Spain (Divine Wind)

  10. Spanish Armada

  11. Decline of the Spanish Empire • Defeat of the Armada was a shock to the world as Spain was experiencing a “Golden Age” of wealth and growth • Controlled territory on Europe and the Americas • Army was one of the strongest in Europe • Leader of religious art in Europe (El Greco) • Miguel de Cervantes Don Quixote (famous author) • Golden Age ended because of • Inflation/buying of foreign goods • Defeat of the Armada allowed England, France and the Netherlands to become world powers/challengers