The Big 5:Phonics Presented by April Kelley Dec. 6th, 2011
Learning TargetsYou will learn… • the definitions and terminology associated with phonics. • about the most important phonics skills to teach at each grade level. • how to diagnose phonics skill deficiencies and how to intervene • how well your reading program does with phonics instruction and how to supplement if needed.
What is Phonics? • Knowing the relationship between printed letters (graphemes) and individual sounds (phonemes) • Phonics Terms: • Graphophonic cues • Letter/sound relationship or letter/sound correspondence • Sound/symbol relationship or sound/symbol correspondence • Sound/spellings
Why teach phonics? • Enable students to learn and apply the alphabetic principle - the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds • Knowing these relationships contributes to the ability to comprehend or to read and understand words in isolation as well as in connected text • Ultimate Goal - comprehension of written language
Theory of Automaticity Think of a time you learned something new… • How did you learn to do it? • After you learned it, what other tasks where you able to do at the same time? • Why were you able to multi-task?
Theory of Automaticity • Ultimate Goal = Comprehension • Phonics Instruction = Prerequisite Skill for Comprehension • If students are spending all their energy on decoding, they’ll have nothing left for comprehension.
Given the spoken word “dog”, the student can tell you that the beginning sound is /d/. (isolation) Given the spoken word “dog”, the student can tell you that the beginning letter is “d.” How are phonemic awareness and phonics connected? Phonemic Awareness Phonics (Sounds) (Letters)
Given the separate sounds /d/ /o/ /g/, the student can tell you that they make up the spoken word “dog.” (blending) Given the word “dog” in print, the student can make the sounds for each letter and blend them into the word “dog.” How are phonemic awareness and phonics connected? Phonemic Awareness Phonics (Sounds) (Letters)
Given the spoken word “hat,” the student can separate the word into three separate sounds /h/ /a/ /t/. (segmentation) Given the spoken word “hat,” the student can tell you that the letters that spell the sounds in hat are h-a-t and/or write the word “hat.” How are phonemic awareness and phonics connected? Phonemic Awareness Phonics (Sounds) (Letters)
Given the spoken word “cart,” and asked to take off the last sound, the student can say “car.” (deletion) Given the spoken word “cart,” the student can spell c-a-r-t. If the final “t” is erased/covered, the student can read the word as “car.” How are phonemic awareness and phonics connected? Phonemic Awareness Phonics (Sounds) (Letters)
Two Elements of Phonics • Decoding - Converting letters into sounds and blending them to form words • Encoding - Segmenting words into sounds for spelling
Letter-Sound Correspondence • Read these 3 pages. • Code as you read: * - New Information ! - Already Knew But Important ? - Questions I have • Round Table Sharing. • Share out 2 new pieces of information and a question you had (if you had one)
Alphabet Activities • ABC Font Sort • Finding the Letters in the Alphabet • Additional Alphabet Activities • Flag favorites
Phonics Continuum • CVC (rat, bet) • Short Vowel/Digraphs (shot, chop) • Consonant Blends (slam, clap) • Long Vowels (mail, pay) • R and L Controlled Vowels (stir, all) • Variant Vowels (boil, hawk) • Two and Three Syllable Words (happen, monitor)
What does systematic and explicit phonics instruction mean? • Systematic - carefully set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence. • Explicit - precise directions for the teaching of these relationships • Steps of explicit instruction • Direct explanation • Modeling • Guided practice • Application
Standards Activity • How well does your current reading program teach the NE Phonics Standards?
NE L.A. Standards &Reading Programs • Work individually or as a school team. • Take the NE Language Arts Standards Or Early Learning Guidelines (Pre-K) • Look through your program (using either a scope and sequence or actual lessons) and highlight the standards that are taught explicitly in your program • Complete Activity: Phonics Reading Program Evaluation
Assessing Phonics • Program Assessments • DIBELS • Nonsense Word Fluency • Oral Reading Fluency • CORE Phonics Survey
Program Assessments What in-program assessments can you rely on?
CORE Phonics Survey • Diagnostic, Screener, Progress Monitor • Best used to plan instruction and form instructional groups • May be administered every 4-6 weeks until mastery starting in mid-K • Individual • Approximately 10-15 min.
CORE Phonics Survey Read through the test together.
CORE Phonics Survey • Retest every 4-6 weeks on parts not mastered • In 5-item subtests, 2 or more errors warrants attention • In 10-item subtests, 3 or more errors warrants attention
CORE Phonics Survey • Questions • Talk in your school teams about how you might use this diagnostic assessment in your school to diagnose and monitor skill mastery
Fun Phonics Activities Supplemental or Intervention
Making Words Lessons • Take a blank piece of paper • Write the following letters on it. Space them out. • a, o, u, b, t, c, p, s, n • Rip them apart • Listen to the directions
Making Words Materials • Magnetic letters • Tile letters • Box Kits • Paper Letters (slide sheets for storage)
Making Words Debrief… • What did I like? • What would I change? • How might I use this?
Quiz, Quiz, Pass • Get a Card (don’t let anyone see picture) • Find a Partner • Quiz Them • They Quiz You • Pass (Trade Cards) • Find a New Partner and Repeat
Quiz, Quiz, Pass Debrief… • What did I like? • What would I change? • How might I use this?
CVC, CVCC, CCVC Game • Number off 1-5 • When I say go, move to assigned spot in room • Person with closest b-day goes first.
CVC, CVCC, CCVC Game • Take turns drawing and reading cards. • Flower = read correctly and keep • Flower = incorrect, put back in pile • Sun = Take another turn • Cloud = Lose all your cards • Student with most cards in end is winner.
CVC, CVCC, CCVC Game Debrief… • What did I like? • What would I change? • How might I use this?
Sound-Spelling Posters… • Write 1 word with each of these spellings on a post-it. • /ee/ as in jeep • /oo/ as in spoon • /ow/ as in cow • /ar/ as in car • Place on appropriate poster around room.
Sound-Spelling Posters… • Have students add to posters and they find words with spellings you’re studying throughout the year.
Sound-Spelling Poster Debrief… • What did I like? • What would I change? • How might I use this?
Home Phonics Activities (or for independent work stations/centers) • Grocery List • Home-School Search • School Sound Search • Sound Categories
Home Phonics Activities Debrief… • What did I like? • What would I change? • How might I use this?