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Modern Physics

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## Modern Physics

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**المملكة العربية السعودية**جامعة الإمام محمد بن سعود الإسلامية كلية العلوم قسم الفيزياء Modern Physics Level: Three Course Code and Number: PHY 250 Modern Physics**AIM**• There are two main objectives of the course: 1. First, to provide simple, clear, and mathematically uncomplicated explanations of physical concepts and theories of modern physics 2. And, to clarify and show support for these theories through a broad range of current applications and examples Modern Physics**PROLOGUE**• Prerequisites: PHY 101, PHY 105, MAT 101 & MAT 102 • Main Resources: Modern Physics, 3rd ed., R Serway et al., Thomson Learning, 2005. (First 5 chapters, 9, 11, 13) Concepts of Modern Physics, 5th ed., A Beiser, McGraw-Hill, 2003. (First 4 chapters, 6, 8,11) • The course is divided into 6 main chapters: Relativity, the Quantum Theory of Light, Introduction to Quantum Physics, Atomic Structure, Molecular Structure, Nuclear Structure Modern Physics**Contents**• Relativity: Einstein’s principle of special relativity, consequences of special relativity, the Lorentz transformation equations, relativistic momentum and the relativistic form of Newton’s laws, relativistic energy, equivalence of mass and energy. • The Quantum Theory of Light: Particle properties of waves, blackbody radiation and Planck’s hypothesis, the photoelectric effect, explanation of the photoelectric effect, the x-rays and some applications, the Compton effect, pair production. • Introduction to Quantum Physics: Photons and electromagnetic waves, wave properties of particles, De Broglie waves, matter waves, the electron microscope, the uncertainty principle. • Atomic Structure: the particle nature of matter, early models of the atom, Bohr’s quantum model of the hydrogen atom, atomic spectra and transitions, nuclear effects on spectral lines, the Franck-Hertz experiment. • Molecular Structure: Molecular bonding, energy states and spectra, molecular vibration and rotation, electronic transitions in molecules. • Nuclear Structure: Nuclear composition, some properties of nuclei, binding energy, radioactivity. Modern Physics**INTRODUCTION**• The end of Physics! Newton’s laws of motion and his universal theory of gravitation, Maxwell’s theoretical work in unifying electricity and magnetism, and the laws of thermodynamics and kinetic theory employed mathematical methods to successfully explain a wide variety of phenomena Modern Physics**Introduction**• Max Planck 1900 & Albert Einstein 1905: Planck provided the basic ideas led to the quantum theory & Einstein formulated his special theory of relativity • These developments led to understand the nature, behavior, structure and properties of many materials Modern Physics**Introduction**• So, what is Modern Physics. It is a group of theoretical concepts and principles that perfectly explains many of experimental physical phenomenon which classical physics fails with. In addition to Planck and Einstein, many other scientists during the 20th century contributed to modern physics by discovering the theoretical foundations led to the development of new physics fields such as nuclear, molecular, particle and solid state physics Modern Physics**Introduction**• Examples of technologies based on modern physics: High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Particle Accelerators (PA), Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and TV Displays (TVD) • Applications in chemistry, astronomy, biology, geology, and engineering have also made use of modern physics Modern Physics**Special Theory of Relativity**• Special theory of relativity is a “general” theory! Because it describes the motion of ALL objects at ALL speeds. The Newtonian mechanics is therefore an approximation of the special relativity • Measurements of time and space are not absolute, they are influenced by the dynamical state of an observer and what is being observed • No exaggeration in saying that special theory of relativity had revolutionized science in general so that our understanding of the physical universe has been significantly improved Modern Physics**Special Theory of Relativity**• Relativity connects between all phenomena of nature: space and time, matter and energy, electricity and magnetism • The beauty of this marvelous theory also originates from the fact that conclusions can readily be reached with only the simplest of mathematics • Einstein once said: “The relativity theory arose from necessity, from serious and deep contradictions in the old theory from which there seemed no escape. The strength of the new theory lies in the consistency and simplicity with which it solves all these difficulties, using only a few very convincing assumptions” Modern Physics**The General Theory**• What is the general theory of relativity (Einstein 1915)? It describes the relationships between gravity and the geometrical structure of space and time. Remarkable results include: light rays are affected by gravity, and the big bang theory (the universe is continually expanding) • The general theory of relativity concerns with accelerating frames of reference • Special theory of relativity, on the contrary, is only concerned with inertial frames of reference, that is, frames moving with constant velocities (no acceleration) Modern Physics**Postulates of The Special Theory**• The laws of physics must be the same for all inertial reference frames: these laws have the same mathematical form for all observers moving at constant velocity with respect to one another • The speed of light is always constant: The measured value (3x108 m/s) is independent of the motion of the observer or of the motion of the source of light • Some relativistic consequences had immediately originated from the theory; the most important will be presented here. Modern Physics**Before we advance, we must agree on the following:**• The special theory of relativity has more to do with philosophy than with exact science, therefore, it may most of the time not agree with human intuition and sensibility. • Relativity is most successful for objects moving only with speed close to c, i.e. relativistic speeds. The effect the theory has on daily-life objects is barley noticeable, if any! Modern Physics**Time Dilation**• The time interval for a physical event is measured differently by observers in different inertial frames of reference Modern Physics**Time Dilation**• O concludes that, because of the motion of the vehicle, if the light is to hit the mirror, it must leave the laser at an angle with respect to the vertical direction Modern Physics**Time Dilation**• Since both observers must measure c for the speed of light, it follows that the time interval ∆t measured by O is longer than the time interval ∆t’ measured by O’. The Pythagorean theorem gives: Time Dilation Modern Physics**Time Dilation**• t’ is usually written as tp and called the proper time (the time interval between two events as measured by an observer who sees the events occur at the same point in space) • “A moving clock runs slower than a clock at rest by a factor of γ ”. In fact, we can generalize these results by stating that all physical processes, including chemical reactions and biological processes, slow down when observed from another reference frame • The heartbeat rate of an astronaut on earth and through space! i.e. ∆t is always > ∆tp because γ is always > 1 Modern Physics**Example**• The period of a pendulum is measured to be 3.0 s in the rest frame of the pendulum. What is the period of the pendulum when measured by an observer moving at a speed of 0.95c with respect to the pendulum? What would be the period if the speed of the observer is increased to 1c, 1000 km/hr.? Hint: ALL matter objects can never have speeds faster than or even equal to the speed of light! Modern Physics**Solution**• Proper time ∆tp=3 sec • Moving pendulum takes longer to complete a period than a pendulum at rest does Modern Physics**Doppler Effect (Sound)**• It is the change in frequency of sound waves as the source approaches or recedes from a stationary observer who hears different pitch than that occurs in normal situations • The separation (wavelength) between emitted waves varies and hence the frequency • The effect does not depend on the loudness (amplitude energy) of the waves • We get the same effect with the observer moving while the source remains stationary Modern Physics**Doppler Effect (Light)**• Spectral lines emitted from distant stars and galaxies (that are billions of years away from us!) are broadened (spread) and red shifted (toward the low frequency end of the EM spectrum) • The measurements indicate that these objects are receding from us (with speeds ≈ 104 km.s-1!) and from one another too and the recession speed is directly proportional to distance (Hubble’s law) • Every 106 years, the recession speed increases on average by 20 km.s-1! • The expansion started 13 billion years ago when a very small, dense and hot mass of matter explodes violently (the big bang theory) Modern Physics**Length Contraction**• Like time interval, the measurement of length interval (distance between two points) is not also absolute but depends on the frame of reference in which it is measured • An object whose length at rest is Lp (the proper length) APPEARS to be contracted to a new length L (where L < Lp) when it moves relative to a stationary observer • Lp is defined similarly as tp as the length of the object measured by someone who is at rest with respect to the object Modern Physics**Length Contraction**• Consider a spaceship traveling with a speed v from one star to another and two observers, one on Earth and the other in the spaceship. The space traveler claims to be at rest and sees the destination star as moving toward the spaceship with speed v. He then measures a smaller time of travel: ∆tp = ∆t/γ. On the other hand, the distance Lp between the stars as measured by the earth observer is Lp = v∆t. Modern Physics**Length Contraction**• Because the space traveler reaches the star in the shorter time ∆tp , he concludes that the distance, L, between the stars is shorter than Lpand is given by: L = v∆tp = v ∆t/γ = vLp /γv = Lp /γ Length contraction where (1-v2/c 2)1/2 is a factor less than 1. So L is always < Lp. Modern Physics**Length Contraction**• If an object has a proper length Lp when it is measured by an observer at rest with respect to the object, when it moves with speed v in a direction parallel to its length, its length L is measured to be shorter by a factor of 1/γ Modern Physics**Length Contraction: Simulation**When the shutter of the camera is opened, it records the shape of the object at a given instant of time. Because light from different parts of the object must arrive at the shutter at the same time, light from more distant parts of the object must start its journey earlier than light from closer parts as in (a). This is not the case in (b), and the camera records different parts of the object at different times. This results in a highly distorted image, which shows horizontal length contraction, vertical curvature, and image rotation. Modern Physics**The Twin Paradox**• It is a famous relativistic effect, which involves an identical twin one of them (X) remains on earth while the other (Y) is taken on a trip into a distant star at speed v and eventually brought back • Y is 20 years old when he takes off at a speed of 0.8c to the star which is 20 light-years away • To Y, the distance L he has covered is shortened to: Lp / γ= 12 light years only! • Although time goes by the usual rate, Y’s two-way voyage to the star has taken L/v = 30 years • But for X, he had to wait (t/tp)x30=50 years! Modern Physics**The Twin Paradox**• So, according to each one’s clock, Y is now 50 years old while X is 70 years old! • Amazingly, the relativistic paradox effect has been verified experimentally on earth by sending clocks on board of airplanes that goes around the world with non-relativistic speeds. Each single travelling clock has always shown to be delayed with respect to the clocks left behind (although brief but noticeable) • Theoretically, life processes such as heartbeats & respiration will be less for Y than X for the same period of time; i.e. the biological clocks of X & Y will be different Modern Physics**Lorentz Transformations**• The Lorentz transformation formulas provide a formal and concise method of solution of relativistic problems • The Lorentz coordinate transformation is a set of formulas that relates the space and time coordinates of two inertial observers moving with a relative speed v. We have already seen two consequences of the Lorentz transformation in the time dilation and length contraction formulas • The Lorentz velocity transformation is the set of formulas that relate the velocity components ux, uy, uzof an object moving in frame S to the velocity components u’x, u’y, u’zof the same object measured in frame S’, which is moving with a speed v relative to S Modern Physics**Lorentz Coordinate Transformations**• the complete coordinate transformations between an event found to occur at (x, y, z, t) in S and (x’, y’, z’, t) in S’ are Modern Physics**Inverse Lorentz Coordinate Transformations**• If we wish to transform coordinates of an event in the S’ frame to coordinates in the S frame, we simply replace v by -v and interchange the primed and unprimed coordinates in the previous equations. The resulting inverse transformation is given by Modern Physics**Lorentz → Galilean**• When v << c, the Lorentz transformations should reduce to the Galilean transformation, i.e. Modern Physics**Lorentz Velocity Transformations**• The relativistic form of the velocity transformation (S frame) is • If the object has velocity components uy and uz along y and z respectively (also in S frame), the components in S’ are • For obtaining the inverse transformation (S’ frame), we apply the previous rules to get Modern Physics**Example**• (a) Imagine a motorcycle rider moving with a speed of 0.80c past a stationary observer. If the rider throws a ball in the forward direction with a speed of 0.70c with respect to himself, what is the speed of the ball as seen by the stationary observer? (b) Suppose that the motorcyclist turns on a beam of light in the same direction as he moves. What would the stationary observer measure for the speed of the beam of light? Hint: v (S’ frame) = 0.80c; u’x = 0.70c Modern Physics**Example**• An observer on Earth observes two spacecrafts moving in the same direction toward the Earth. Spacecraft A appears to have a speed of 0.50c, and spacecraft B appears to have a speed of 0.80c. What is the speed of spacecraft A measured by an observer in spacecraft B? Hint: ux = 0.50c and v (S’ frame) = 0.80c Modern Physics**Applications of Relativity: (1) Relativistic Momentum**• The conservation of linear momentum states that when two bodies collide, the total momentum remains constant assuming the bodies are isolated (that is, they interact only with each other) • Now suppose the collision is described in a reference frame S in which momentum is conserved. If the velocities of the colliding bodies are calculated in a second moving inertial frame S’ using the Lorentz transformation, and the classical definition of momentum p=mu applied, one finds that momentum is not conserved in the second reference frame S’ • However, because the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames, momentum must be conserved in all frames if it is conserved in any one! Modern Physics**Relativistic Momentum**• It is found that momentum is conserved in both S and S’, (and indeed in all inertial frames), if we redefine momentum as • where u is the velocity of the particle and m is the proper (rest) mass, that is, the mass measured by an observer at rest with respect to the mass (relativistic mass=mγ) • When u is much less than c, the above equation reduces to the classical form of momentum Modern Physics**Classical and Relativistic Momentum**• The figure depicts how p varies with u/c for both γmu and Mu. When u/c is small, mu and γmu are very much the same. As u approaches c, the curve for γmu rises more steeply. If u=c, Then p=∞, which is impossible This is another reason why we can not accelerate an object to the speed of light. u u u Modern Physics**Applications of Relativity: (2) Relativistic Form of**Newton’s Second Law • The relativistic form of Newton’s second law is given by the expression • This expression is logical because it protects classical mechanics in the limit of low velocities and requires the momentum of an isolated system (Fext= 0) to be conserved relativistically as well as classically Modern Physics**Example**• An electron, which has a mass of 9.11x10-31 kg, moves with a speed of 0.750c. Find its relativistic momentum and compare this with the momentum calculated from the classical expression. Take c=3x10m8 m/s • A particle is moving at a speed of less than c/2. If the speed of the particle is doubled, what happens to its momentum? Modern Physics**Applications of Relativity: (3) Relativistic Energy**• The definition of momentum and the laws of motion required generalization to make them compatible with the principle of relativity. This implies that the relativistic form of the kinetic energy must also be modified • We begin with the fact that the work done (W) on an object by a constant force (F) through a distance (s) is W=F.s. If no other forces act on the object and it starts motion from rest, then W=K.E.=F.s Modern Physics**Applications of Relativity: (3) Relativistic Energy**• Now, if (F) is not constant then we can write the general form for classical K.E. as • The relativistic form of K.E. is Modern Physics**Applications of Relativity: (3) Relativistic Energy**• The last equation E=γmc2 is Einstein’s famous mass–energy equivalence equation, which shows that mass is a measure of the total energy in all forms. It not only applies to particles but also to macroscopic objects • It has the remarkable implication that any kind of energy added to a “brick” of matter—electric, magnetic, elastic, thermal, gravitational, chemical—actually increases the mass! • Another implication of Equation’s equation is that a small mass corresponds to an enormous amount of energy because c2 is a very large number. This concept has revolutionized the field of nuclear physics Modern Physics**Kinetic Energy at Low Speeds**• The classical formula for KE [KE=(1/2)mv2] for speeds much smaller than c has experimentally been already verified. Let us check if this is true by considering the relativistic formula for KE: • Since v2/c2 << 1, we can use the binomial approximation (1 + x)n ≈ 1 + nx, and this is only valid for |x| << 1: Modern Physics**Energy-Momentum Relation**• If the object at rest (u=0 & K.E.=0), i.e. γ=1, then its total energy is called the rest energy and termed E0 = mc2 • In many situations, the momentum or energy of a particle is measured rather than its speed. It is therefore useful to have an expression relating the total energy E to the relativistic momentum p. This is accomplished using E= γmc2 and p=γmu. This will be done on the next slide Modern Physics**Total Energy-Momentum Relation**• We show that the total energy–momentum relationship is given by E2= p2c2+(mc2)2 . Take E= γmc2 and p=γmu. By squaring the two equations and then subtracting, we get: Modern Physics**Total Energy-Momentum Relation**• Because the rest energy (E0) is invariant quantity, the quantity will also be so, i.e. has the same value in all inertial frames of reference • The energy-momentum relationship holds true also for a system of many particles provided that (m) represents the entire system. • However, E0 of an isolated system may be greater than or less than the sum of the rest energies of its constituents. Examples include neutrons and protons within an atomic nucleus • Except for the hydrogen atom, this difference in energy is called the “binding energy” of the nucleus (energy needed to break up) • For comparison purposes, a typical binding energy is 1012 kJ/kg of nuclear matter, while the binding energy of water molecules is only in the order of 103 kJ/kg of liquid water Modern Physics**Massless Particles: The Photon**• In classical physics, any particle that does not have mass is considered absent. The reason is that both its total energy (Etotal=KE+PE) and momentum (p=mu) are functions in mass. • Considered to be the general theory, relativistic mechanics provides the same result when we substitute m=0 and u<<c in the equations Etotal=γmc2 and p=γmu. • However, when m=0, but u=c: Etotal=0/0 and p=0/0, which are indeterminate, i.e. Etotal and p can have any values • In this case, the total energy of such particles is given by Etotal2= p2c2+(mc2)2= p2c2+0 Etotal = pc For Photons • So, massless particles do exist and they exhibit particle like properties as energy and momentum. Modern Physics