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## Teach Epidemiology

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**Day**3 Teach Epidemiology Professional Development Workshop Centers for Disease Control and PreventionMorgantown, West Virginia June 20-24, 2011**Teach Epidemiology**Teach Epidemiology**MMWR**http://www.cdc.gov/**Enduring Epidemiological Understandings**Knowledge that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to specify the context in which it is applicable.” National Research Council , Learning and Understanding Teach Epidemiology**Time Check**8:15 AM**Teach Epidemiology**Teach Epidemiology**Ms. Wilson**After-School, Make-Up Homework Hall**a**b c d Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do their homework. Label the 2x2 Table**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone Total**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone Place the data into the 2x2 Table a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone Total**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone 15 a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 20 Total**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone 15 a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 20 Total Which of the following statements can be made based on the above data: A: 15 of 20 students, who did not do their homework, had cell phones. B: 15 of 20 students, who had cell phones, did not do their homework.**Cohort Study – The Nurses’ Health Study (1976)**Risk No Connective Tissue Disease Connective Tissue Disease Total Breast Implants 3 1,180 1,183 No Breast Implants 513 85,805 86,318 Which of the following statements can be made based on the above data: A: 15 of 20 students, who did not do their homework, had cell phones. B: 15 of 20 students, who had cell phones, did not do their homework.**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Risk X Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Odds Had Cell Phone 15 a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 20 Total Which of the following statements can be made based on the above data: A: 15 of 20 students, who did not do their homework, had cell phones. B: 15 of 20 students, who had cell phones, did not do their homework.**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Odds A ratio of the probability of occurrence of an event to that of its nonoccurrence.**Odds**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework A ratio of the probability of occurrence of an event to that of its nonoccurrence. Had Cell Phone 15 a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 15 to 5 or 3 to 1 20 Total Which of the following statements can be made based on the above data: A: 15 of 20 students, who did not do their homework, had cell phones. B: 15 of 20 students, who had cell phones, did not do their homework.**Odds**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework A ratio of the probability of occurrence of an event to that of its nonoccurrence. Had Cell Phone 15 Nothing a b Compared to what? c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 15 to 5 or 3 to 1 20 Total Which of the following statements can be made based on the above data: A: 15 of 20 students, who did not do their homework, had cell phones. B: 15 of 20 students, who had cell phones, did not do their homework.**Count**Divide Compare Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do their homework.**Odds**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework A ratio of the probability of occurrence of an event to that of its nonoccurrence. Had Cell Phone 15 Nothing a b Compared to what? c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 What did Ms. Wilson do? 15 to 5 or 3 to 1 20 Total Which of the following statements can be made based on the above data: A: 15 of 20 students, who did not do their homework, had cell phones. B: 15 of 20 students, who had cell phones, did not do their homework.**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. What did Ms. Wilson do?**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Place the data into the 2x2 Table Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone 15 10 a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 30 10 to 30 or 1 to 3 20 40 Total 3 to 1**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone 15 10 a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 30 10 to 30 or 1 to 3 20 40 Total 3 to 1 What mathematical computation would allow them to complete the statement: The odds of having a cell phone were ____ times greater among students who had not done their homework compared to students who did do their homework.**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone 15 10 a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 30 10 to 30 or 1 to 3 20 40 Total 3 to 1 3 / .33 = 9 3 / 1 = 3 1 / 3 = .33 What mathematical computation would allow them to complete the statement: The odds of having a cell phone were ____ times greater among students who had not done their homework compared to students who did do their homework. 9**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Odds Ratio Ratio of odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among controls. Relative Odds**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone 15 35 Odds Ratio a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 5 20 40 Total What mathematical computation would allow them to complete the statement: The odds of having a cell phone were ____ times greater among students who had not done their homework compared to students who did do their homework. .43**Talking too much on a cell phone causes students not to do**their homework. Did Not Do Homework Did Homework Had Cell Phone 15 30 Odds Ratio a b c d Did Not Have Cell Phone 5 10 20 40 Total What mathematical computation would allow them to complete the statement: The odds of having a cell phone were ____ times greater among students who had not done their homework compared to students who did do their homework. 1**The Journey**The Journey Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**Analogy**Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**Epi Talk**Epi Talk Study Design Procedures and methods, established beforehand, that are followed by the investigator conducting the study. Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**When does the epidemiologist**start to observe the journey? - When are the passengers identified as exposed or unexposed? Timing E When are the passengers identified as sick or not sick? DZ Timing Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**-**Label the Train Tracks E DZ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Time Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**-**Label the Train Tracks Study Design: Controlled Trial E DZ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Time Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**DZ**E DZ Random Assignment Healthy People DZ E - DZ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Time Flow Diagram Flow Diagram Controlled Trial Healthy People Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**Label the Train Tracks**Study Design: Cohort Study +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Time Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**Label the Train Tracks**Cohort Study Just as in the controlled trial, the epidemiologist is also on the train during the entire journey. But there is an important difference. The epidemiologist is not telling passengers what to do. Rather, the epidemiologist is just observing them and counting. Passengers are not being told to have or not have an exposure, they are just living their normal lives. The epidemiologist, on the ride for the whole journey, just keeps observing everyone’s exposures and whether or not they develop the disease during the journey. Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey**-**Label the Train Tracks Study Design: Cohort Study E DZ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Time Detectives in the Classroom - Investigation 2-6: The Journey