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Teach Epidemiology

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  1. Day 5 Teach Epidemiology Professional Development Workshop Centers for Disease Control and PreventionGlobal Health Odyssey MuseumTom Harkin Global Communications Center July 6-10, 2009

  2. Teach Epidemiology Teach Epidemiology

  3. Teach Epidemiology Welcome to Web Sites Teach Epidemiology

  4. Teach Epidemiology Teach Epidemiology Teach Epidemiology

  5. Teach Epidemiology Welcome to Teach Epidemiology Teach Epidemiology

  6. Time Check 9:15 AM

  7. Teach Epidemiology Teach Epidemiology

  8. Teaching Epidemiology Group 4 Teach Epidemiology

  9. Teaching Epidemiology Metacognition They can then use that ability to think about their own thinking … to grasp how other people might learn. They know what has to come first, and they can distinguish between foundational concepts and elaborations or illustrations of those ideas. They realize where people are likely to face difficulties developing their own comprehension, and they can use that understanding to simplify and clarify complex topics for others, tell the right story, or raise a powerfully provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best College Teachers Do 10 Teach Epidemiology

  10. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings Knowledge that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to specify the context in which it is applicable.” National Research Council , Learning and Understanding Teach Epidemiology

  11. Time Check 10:00 AM

  12. Teach Epidemiology 14 Teach Epidemiology

  13. Teaching Epidemiology Group 5 Teach Epidemiology

  14. Teaching Epidemiology Metacognition They can then use that ability to think about their own thinking … to grasp how other people might learn. They know what has to come first, and they can distinguish between foundational concepts and elaborations or illustrations of those ideas. They realize where people are likely to face difficulties developing their own comprehension, and they can use that understanding to simplify and clarify complex topics for others, tell the right story, or raise a powerfully provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best College Teachers Do 16 Teach Epidemiology

  15. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings Knowledge that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to specify the context in which it is applicable.” National Research Council , Learning and Understanding Teach Epidemiology

  16. Time Check 10:45 AM

  17. Teach Epidemiology 20 Teach Epidemiology

  18. Teaching Epidemiology Group 6 Teach Epidemiology

  19. Teaching Epidemiology Metacognition They can then use that ability to think about their own thinking … to grasp how other people might learn. They know what has to come first, and they can distinguish between foundational concepts and elaborations or illustrations of those ideas. They realize where people are likely to face difficulties developing their own comprehension, and they can use that understanding to simplify and clarify complex topics for others, tell the right story, or raise a powerfully provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best College Teachers Do 22 Teach Epidemiology

  20. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings Knowledge that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to specify the context in which it is applicable.” National Research Council , Learning and Understanding Teach Epidemiology

  21. Time Check 11:30 AM

  22. Teach Epidemiology 26 Teach Epidemiology

  23. Teach Epidemiology 28 Teach Epidemiology

  24. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings Knowledge that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to specify the context in which it is applicable.” National Research Council , Learning and Understanding 29 Teach Epidemiology

  25. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings 30 Teach Epidemiology

  26. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses John Snow, MD (1813-1858) Father of Epidemiology “On the Mode and Transmission of Cholera” 31

  27. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses 32

  28. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses A Mysterious Ailment By Jerry Bishop, Staff Reporter of the Wall Street Journal A mysterious, often fatal illness is breaking out in epidemic proportions among young homosexual men and drug users. More than 180 cases of the strange illness have been reported since last summer to the federal Center for Disease Control in Atlanta. As of last Friday, at least 74 of the victims have died. All the victims are men and 90% of them are either homosexual or bisexual. Many of the victims are drug users. The illness is characterized by months of fever, malaise, and drastic weight loss. In almost all cases the patients develop overwhelming infections of one or more of a dozen different viruses, bacteria or protozoa. The infecting microbes are types that do not ordinarily cause overt human disease. Many of the patients also develop a rare type of cancer. To the astonishment of medical scientists, most of the patients appear to have recently developed a defect in their immune systems that prevents them from fighting off infections. The infections are extremely difficult to control with antibiotics and antiviral drugs. "We are reasonably confident that this is, in fact, a new medical problem," said Dr. Harold Jaffe, an epidemiologist on a new task force organized by the Center for Disease Control to search for the cause of the illness. In an effort comparable to that launched last year to unravel the mystery of toxic shock syndrome, the center's task force is trying to find out whether a new germ has emerged or whether something in the environment has changed to account for the sudden outbreak of the illness. For example, the task force is checking into the use of sexual stimulants by the victims on the possibility these chemicals can impair the immune system and leave the user vulnerable to infections. Among such stimulants are chemicals that are inhaled. These include amyl nitrate sold in glass vials, known by the street name "poppers" and isobutyl nitrate sold as "liquid incense." First hints that some unusual illness was breaking out came earlier this year when researchers in New York and Los Angeles reported cases of both a rare kind of pneumonia and a rare cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma occurring in a few young men. The men were either homosexual or drug users or both. The disease center alerted doctors and health officials around the country last summer to the strange ailment. This week's New England Journal of Medicine, published today, devotes three articles to describing 19 of the patients, six of whom died. Publishing three lengthy articles on the same illness is unusual for the medical

  29. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1990, 1998, 2006 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1998 1990 2006 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% 34

  30. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses 35 Teach Epidemiology

  31. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses Answer the Question Teach Epidemiology

  32. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses What’s My Hypothesis? Whistles 37 Teach Epidemiology

  33. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses Group 1 38 Teach Epidemiology

  34. Identifying Patterns and Formulating Hypotheses Group 2 39 Teach Epidemiology

  35. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings Knowledge that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to specify the context in which it is applicable.” National Research Council , Learning and Understanding 40 Teach Epidemiology

  36. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings “… they can distinguish between foundational concepts and elaborations or illustrations of those ideas.” Ken Bain, What the Best College Teachers Do 41 Teach Epidemiology

  37. Enduring Epidemiological Understandings 42 Teach Epidemiology

  38. 43 Teach Epidemiology - 501 (Tuesday) CDC June 2009

  39. 21 62 21 21 6 21 21 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 21% 21% 21% 21% 21% 6% 62% 21 21 21 62 21 21 6 79 79 38 79 79 79 94 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 or or or or or or or 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Making Group Comparisons and Identifying Associations Trial 1 Trial 2 Tested Negative for Heroin Tested Positive for Heroin Risk of Negative Heroin Test Tested Negative for Heroin Tested Positive for Heroin Risk of Negative Heroin Test Relative Risk Total Total Bupe Bupe 1 Nothing No Bupe Bupe is not associated with having a negative tests for heroin. Nothing Trial 3 Compared to what? Trial 4 Tested Negative for Heroin Tested Positive for Heroin Risk of Negative Heroin Test Tested Negative for Heroin Tested Positive for Heroin Risk of Negative Heroin Test Relative Risk Relative Risk Total Total Bupe Bupe .34 3.5 No Bupe No Bupe Bupe is associated with having a positive test for heroin! Bupe is associated with having a negative test for heroin. 44 Teach Epidemiology

  40. Buprenorphine Buprenorphine & Naloxone Placebo Making Group Comparisons and Identifying Associations 45 Teach Epidemiology

  41. DZ DZ E Controlled Trial Case-Control Study DZ E Healthy People DZ E DZ DZ Random Assignment Healthy People Healthy People DZ DZ E Cohort Study Cross-Sectional Study E - - - - DZ E DZ Healthy People DZ DZ E E E E Making Group Comparisons and Identifying Associations Teach Epidemiology DrugEpi 3-5 Fundamentals of Study Design

  42. Making Group Comparisons and Identifying Associations Teach Epidemiology

  43. Making Group Comparisons and Identifying Associations Test the hypothesis: People who watch more TV eat more junk food. Teach Epidemiology

  44. Making Group Comparisons and Identifying Associations Group 3 49 Teach Epidemiology

  45. Making Group Comparisons and Identifying Associations Group 4 50 Teach Epidemiology