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Unit Five

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Unit Five

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  1. Unit Five Absolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions

  2. Standards – Absolutism & Revolution SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791), and Latin America (1808-1825). Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for Europe Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry.

  3. Standards – China and Japan SSWH11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rules; include how Oda Nobunaga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.

  4. Standards – Age of Enlightenment SSWH13 The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans. a. Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view. b. Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society.

  5. Day One Absolutism

  6. First Ten Be sure to have a textbook Pick up a half sheet reading from the chair – do not write on it – read it and be ready for discussion. How to do vocabulary this unit What does divine mean? What is a monarchy? What gave kings that “right to rule” over people? Would we follow this model in the U.S.?

  7. Hook The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth; for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God Himself they are called gods... Kings justly gods, for they exercise a... divine power upon earth... God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake at His pleasure, to give life or sent death to judge and to be judged nor accountable to none, to raise low things and to make high things low at His pleasure... And the like power of kings... -King James IV/I of Britain, 160 What is divine right? What is an absolute monarchy?  Age of Absolutism How is this different from a democracy?

  8. Work Session Absolutism Activity with Notes Louis Versailles Tour Peter the Great Comparison Activity

  9. Absolutism and Divine Right Absolutism is when a single individual rules with complete power over their subjects. Typically they control your private and public life Laws are made without the consent of the governed  purpose is to centralize their power Rule by divine right was used by absolute monarchs in the 16th and 17th centuries to maintain control over the people. This is the belief that the monarch is God’s representative on earth. They receive their authority from God. If you challenge the monarchy, you are challenging God. When you challenge the King that is treason.

  10. King Louis XIV Ruler of France – “I am the State” – “Sun King” 1643-1715 Social: Weakened the authority of the noble class and gave that authority to intendants (government workers – not from a noble class), use of army to put down internal and external opponents Political: Initiated wars to expand empire and increase wealth Innovations: Palace of Versailles, dams & irrigation, self-glorification through art – ballet & opera Culture: ended Protestant freedoms with the Edict of Nantes Economic: Heavy taxation to fund projects and wars, make France self-sufficient (mercantilism)  colonies Sun King Versailles

  11. King Louis XIV of France • What characteristics of this painting show the power of King Louis?

  12. Chart Analysis • Based on this chart, what assumption can be made concerning Louis and his leadership as an absolute monarch?

  13. Peter the Great Czar of Russia – 1682 – 1725 Social: nobility class (boyars) must embrace westernization, large use of peasant labor to build cities Political: Tension with Church, taxation, First Czar out of Russia Innovations: St. Petersburg – Window to the West, Grand Embassy Culture: Westernization (dress and appearance), took control of the Orthodox Church Economic: heavy taxation for large building projects (St. Petersburg) Peter the Great - Discovery

  14. Czar Peter I of Russia • What image is Peter trying to convey in this painting?

  15. Find 3 general similarities and 3 general differences between these absolute monarchs.

  16. Last Ten Comparing Louis and Peter Compare and Contrast – Louis v. Peter Absolutism DBQ is due on Thursday

  17. Reminders DBQ Activity is due on Friday Reading Analysis #1 is due on Thursday

  18. Day Two Absolutism in the East

  19. First Ten “Here a new city shall be wrought [built]… Shall break a window to the West… Here flags of foreign nations all By waters new to them will call…” • Which of the following does not belong? • St. Petersburg, Paris, Versailles • Taxation, frequent wars, freedom of speech • Divine Right, Absolutism, Reason • Louis XIV, intendant, boyar • Grand Embassy, Edict of Nantes, Westernization What is being described in this quote? Yesterday we discussed Louis XIV & Peter the Great. Would you argue that they were an effective monarch? Why or why not?

  20. Hook On your worksheet complete the front for Louis and Peter (This should be review).

  21. Work Session • Today we will discuss Absolute monarchs in China and Japan. • Complete your chart on the back, just as you did on the front using your textbook: • Japan: 542-547 • China: 539-541

  22. Japan Warring States Period (1467-1568) Oda Nobunaga (1568-1582) ToyotomiHideyoshi (1582-1598) Tokugawa Ieyasu (1600-1616) BUT his family ruled Japan until 1867  Tokugawa Shogunate

  23. Japan under Centralization • Tokugawa Shogunate: • Construction of Edo Castle • Alternate attendance policy for the daimyos • Persecution of Christianity • Resorted to isolationism

  24. Edo Castle largest donjon (tower) in Japan Daimyo were forced to help pay for this project All surrounding hills were leveled and the bay was filled in! Daimyo sent 3,000 ships for years to get enough large stone for Ieyasu

  25. China Ming  Qing Ming embraced exploration and contact with the Europeans/Africans/other Asians Qing seized power in China in 1644. Kangxi was their first emperor (1661-1722) Qian-long (grandson) ruled from (1736-1795)

  26. China under Centralization Brought restoration through strict boundaries in country Lower taxation Patron of the Arts & learning  culture flourished Religious FREEDOM! – Jesuits and Confucianism allowed Originally allowed Christian merchants and missionaries (new products brought in and out of country) but soon isolated China – no desire for trade with European countries – Dutch were allowed to stay but had to pay a tribute  China wanted to be self-sufficient. Successfully invades Korea Women lacked freedoms

  27. Conclusion  Similarities • All rise to power after years of warfare (better to have strict dictator than chaos and war) • Built strong armies • All raise heavy taxes • Expanded territory • Created a strong centralized power • Brought nobility under control • Drew advisors from middle class • Encouraged better manufacturing and trade • Brought church under gov’t control • Did not allow religious toleration

  28. Last Ten How were western policies similar and different from eastern policies during the Age of Absolutism?

  29. Day Three Review Absolutism and Scientific Revolution

  30. First Ten • Pick up a sheet from the chair and complete! • Chinese Population Analysis • Crossword Review • I will be checking your DBQ Assignment at this time.

  31. Hook • What do you know about the individuals below? Can you list their major accomplishments? • Nicolas Copernicus • Galileo Galilee • Johannes Kepler • Sir Isaac Newton • Definition of Scientific Revolution? • New theories replaced old theories of science that were rooted in a new idea called the scientific method.

  32. Work Session • Scientific Revolution DBQ and Discussion • Work time! • Vocabulary • Analytical Reading

  33. Main Ideas In the mid-1500’s scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation Such questioning led to the development of the scientific method still in use today.

  34. Copernicus • Polish Cleric & astronomer • Worked 25 years to develop the Heliocentric Theory which challenged the Catholic Church’s Geocentric Theory (which was based off of research by Aristotle during the Greek Golden Age). • Since he feared the church (heresy) he did not publish his findings until the year of his day in 1543. • He did not have the mathematical formulas to prove his findings, just observations.

  35. Galileo • Italian Scientist • Developed his own telescope in 1609 • Findings: Jupiter has 4 moons, the sun has dark spots, and the moon was imperfect. • These findings went against the Catholic Church’s ideas of the moon (again based on Aristotle. • However, Galileo published the Starry Messenger (1632) in which he supported the Copernican theory.

  36. Persecution of Galileo • Galileo was put on trial for heresy – Inquisition – Where he reads a confession. • Although he recanted, he was still placed on house arrest until his death in 1642. • The Catholic Church apologized for their actions in 1992. I, Galileo…Florentine, aged seventy years, …kneeling before you,…swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God's help will in  the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church…I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine…I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned,…I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves:  …with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy,  and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me…”

  37. Kepler • German mathematician & astronomer • Assistant to Tycho Brahe (student of Copernicus) • Findings: planets move in elliptical patterns, not circles & proved Copernican theory using mathematical evidence.Also, many of his findings formed a foundation for Sir Isaac Newton

  38. Sir Isaac Newton • English scientist – 1600’s • Studied math and physics at Cambridge • Findings: Universal Gravitation, Laws of Motion • “If I have seen further than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.”

  39. Questions you should be able to answer… What was the difference between the helio – and geo – centric theories? Who had the authority in science prior to the Scientific Revolution? What was the importance/significance of the Scientific Revolution? Why did Copernicus not publish his findings until after his death? Name 3 new ideas and findings by Galileo. How did Kepler confirm the theories of Copernicus and Galileo? How was Newton the “capstone” of the Scientific Revolution?

  40. Last Ten What am I Thinking? Activity CNN Student News – UN Day! Reminder – Analytical Reading #1 Due tomorrow on Edmodo

  41. Day Four Enlightenment Ideas

  42. First Ten POP Quiz – Pick up scantron Quiz in 3 minutes – Study your notes from absolutism and Scientific Revolution

  43. Hook Hippocampus Video – What was the Age of Reason/Enlightenment?

  44. Work Session Stations with chart

  45. Last Ten One tweet for each thinker – must include 1 hash tag - # CNN Student News

  46. Day Five Enlightenment Thinkers and Impact  Revolutions

  47. First Ten Pick up your scantron and review the questions you missed. Ask questions – neighbors and me. Analytical Readings were graded yesterday and grades were entered – The assignments for the most part were complete (as in answering all of the questions) however, I feel that more detail can be included in the main idea bullet points. Also, formal grammar and spelling is required on any assignment turned in. Project grades were entered as well. If you have a question about your grade please let me know at the end of class (during announcements)

  48. Questions to Review Class average – 80% #3 – Mita was a labor tribute required by the Incan government – used for government construction of buildings and public works (roads). #8 – A major result of the European conquest of LA was the diffusion of the Spanish language. #11- Bartolomeu Dias captained the first ship to sail around the Cape of Good Hope. #19 – Samuel de Champlain explored the Great Lakes regions and modern day Quebec. #26 – Dias sailed for Portugal. #27 – Columbus sailed for SPAIN. #32 – Pizzaro sailed for Spain. #33 – slavery and disease #34 – If African slaves already had small pox they were immune and would not get them again and risk perishing. #35 – knowledge of agriculture, slave trade was already in existence between Africa, Europe, and Asia, immune to Old World diseases, did not know they “new” world