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# Chapter 8

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1. Chapter 8 Momentum, Impulse, and Collisions Modified by Mike Brotherton

2. Goals for Chapter 8 • To learn the meaning of the momentum of a particle and how an impulse causes it to change • To learn how to use the conservation of momentum • To learn how to solve problems involving collisions • To learn the definition of the center of mass of a system and what determines how it moves • To analyze situations, such as rocket propulsion, in which the mass of a moving body changes

3. Introduction • In many situations, such as a bullet hitting a carrot, we cannot use Newton’s second law to solve problems because we know very little about the complicated forces involved. • In this chapter, we shall introduce momentum and impulse, and the conservation of momentum, to solve such problems.

4. Momentum and Newton’s second law • The momentum of a particle is the product of its mass and its velocity: p=mv • Newton’s second law can be written in terms of momentum as F = dp/dt

5. Impulse and momentum • The impulse of a force is the product of the force and the time interval during which it acts. • On a graph of Fxversus time, the impulse is equal to the area under the curve, as shown in Figure 8.3 to the right. • Impulse-momentum theorem: The change in momentum of a particle during a time interval is equal to the impulse of the net force acting on the particle during that interval.

6. Spider-man and the Death of Gwen Stacy (AS#121) • Superheroes save people from falling all the time, but it’s not so simple…and Peter Parker learned the hard way: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Night_Gwen_Stacy_Died

7. Spider-man and the Death of Gwen Stacy (AS#121) • But the Green Goblin gets an F in Physics 1210: • "Romantic idiot! She was dead before your webbing reached her! A fall from that height would kill anyone—before they struck the ground!” • And he paid the ultimate price…

8. Compare momentum and kinetic energy • Changes in momentum depend on the time over which the net force acts, but changes in kinetic energy depend on the distance over which the net force acts. (See Figure 8.4 to the right.) • Follow Conceptual Example 8.1.

9. A ball hits a wall • In Example 8.2, a ball rebounds from a wall. • Follow Example 8.2 using Figure 8.5 below.

10. Kicking a soccer ball • In Example 8.3, a kick changes the direction of a soccer ball. • Follow Example 8.3 using Figure 8.7 below.

11. An isolated system • The total momentum of a system of particles is the vector sum of the momenta of the individual particles. • No external forces act on the isolated system consisting of the two astronauts shown below, so the total momentum of this system is conserved.

12. Conservation of momentum • External forces (the normal force and gravity) act on the skaters shown in Figure 8.9 at the right, but their vector sum is zero. Therefore the total momentum of the skaters is conserved. • Conservation of momentum: If the vector sum of the external forces on a system is zero, the total momentum of the system is constant.

13. Remember that momentum is a vector! • When applying conservation of momentum, remember that momentum is a vector quantity! • Use vector addition to add momenta, as shown in Figure 8.10 at the right.

14. Recoil of a rifle • In Example 8.4, a rifle fires a bullet, causing the rifle to recoil. • Follow Example 8.4, using Figure 8.11 shown below.

15. Objects colliding along a straight line • Two gliders collide on an air track in Example 8.5. • Follow Example 8.5 using Figure 8.12 as shown below.

16. Elastic collisions • In an elastic collision, the total kinetic energy of the system is the same after the collision as before. • Figure 8.14 at the left illustrates an elastic collision between air track gliders.

17. Inelastic collisions • In an inelastic collision, the total kinetic energy after the collision is less than before the collision. • A collision in which the bodies stick together is called a completely inelastic collision (see Figure 8.15 at the right). • In any collision in which the external forces can be neglected, the total momentum is conserved.

18. Some inelastic collisions • Cars are intended to have inelastic collisions so the car absorbs as much energy as possible. • Follow Example 8.7, which illustrates a completely inelastic collision, and use Figure 8.17 at the right.

19. Elastic collisions • As Figures 8.22 and 8.23 show, the behavior of the colliding objects is greatly affected by their relative masses.

20. A two-dimensional elastic collision • Follow Example 8.12 using Figure 8.26 below.

21. Center of mass of symmetrical objects • It is easy to find the center of mass of a homogeneous symmetric object, as shown in Figure 8.28 at the left.

22. Motion of the center of mass • The total momentum of a system is equal to the total mass times the velocity of the center of mass. • The center of mass of the wrench in Figure 8.29 at the right moves as though all the mass were concentrated there.

23. External forces and center-of-mass motion • When a body or collection of particles is acted upon by external forces, the center of mass moves as though all the mass were concentrated there (see Figure 8.31 below).

24. Rocket propulsion • As a rocket burns fuel, its mass decreases, as shown in Figure 8.32 below. • Follow Example 8.15 (Acceleration of a rocket). • Follow Example 8.16 (Speed of a rocket).