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  1. Hammurabi • Nearly 4,000 years ago, a man named Hammurabi became king of a city-state called Babylon. • Today Babylon only exists as an archaeological site in central Iraq. • In the time of Hammurabi, Babylon was the capital of the kingdom of Babylonia. • What do you call different territories conquered and ruled by a single ruler?

  2. Hammurabi • What we know about the life of Hammurabi comes from thousands of clay tablets found by archaeologists. • What written language do you think was on these tablets? • These tablets tell us that Hammurabi took power in 1792 B.C.E. and ruled for 42 years. • In what year did Hammurabi’s rule end?

  3. Hammurabi • Hammurabi would eventually rule over an estimated population of 1,000,000 people. • As Hammurabi’s empire expanded, he needed to enforce a system of law and order. • This led to the creation of 282 laws known as Hammurabi’s Code. • Why might an expanding empire create the need for a universal set of laws? • Why would it be important to have your laws written down for all to see?

  4. Hammurabi • Hammurabi’s Code of laws was carved into an 8 foot tall stone monument and put in public for all to see. • It is believed that these monuments were put up all over his empire, even though only one of them has been recovered. • This artifact is currently on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  5. Hammurabi’s Code

  6. What is Justice?

  7. Case A • -Eddie is caught shoplifting a cell phone from Radio Shack. Eddie is 15 years old. It is his first offense. The police call his parents, and Eddie is forced to return the phone. This will not go on Eddie’s criminal record. • Is this fair to Eddie? • Is this fair to Radio Shack? • Is this fair to/in the best interest of society?

  8. Case B • J.D. is caught shoplifting a cell phone from Radio Shack. He is 19 years old. This will be his 3rd felony conviction, all for shoplifting. Because of the Three Strikes Law, J.D. is required to serve a minimum of ten years in prison with no chance of parole. • Is this fair to J.D. • Is this fair to Radio Shack? • Is this fair/in the best interest of society?

  9. Case C • Debbie was caught teasing another student and taking pictures of that student during the last school dance. Debbie’s cell phone was taken and not given back until her parents picked her up. Debbie was also banned from the next dance. • Is this fair to Debbie? • Is this fair to the other student? • Is this in the best interest of the school community?

  10. Hammurabi’s Code • 1-If a citizen accused another citizen and brought a charge of murder against him, but has not proved it, his accuser shall be put to death. • Is this just?

  11. Hammurabi’s Code • 6-If anyone steals the property of a temple or of the court (government), he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be put to death. • Is this just? • What does this tell you about the status of those who work in temple?

  12. Hammurabi’s Code • 8-If anyone steals cattle or sheep, or a pig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold (30 times what it is worth); if they belonged to a freed man he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death. • Is this just? • What does this tell you about social classes?

  13. Hammurabi’s Code • 13- If a builder constructed a house for a citizen, but he did not make his work strong, with the result that the house which he built collapsed and so caused the death of the owner of the house, that builder shall be put to death. • Is this just?

  14. Hammurabi’s CodeDebriefing questions • Do you think that Hammurabi succeeded in bringing peace and justice to his empire through his code of laws? • Do you believe this code of laws would work in our modern world? • What impact do you think Hammurabi’s Code had on other rulers?