“The Basics” Peace Operations MPAT Workshop Module Series (1st Coordinating Draft 7 June 02)
Preface • This MPAT Workshop Module – Peace Operations is focused on support of the Multinational Forces Standard Operation Procedures (MNF SOP) and the Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT) Collaborative Planning Workshops. • This is a collaborative effort of the nations participating within the MPAT program. This is NOT just one nation’s doctrinal approach. • This module fully acknowledges that there is no common doctrine for Peace Operations. Further, this module is not intended to portray a single integrated doctrinal approach to Peace Operations. • Intent of module series is to act as a basic starting point for multinational Peace Operations planning and operations. Click here for Glossary Click here for Key References Proceed to Main Menu
Peace OperationsWorkshop Module Series Module 1 : THE BASICS Module 2 : PEACE OPERATIONS REALITIES AND OPERATIONAL MODEL Module 3 : PEACE OPERATIONS “WORKING DOCTRINE” Module 4 : CTF COMMAND AND CONTROL OPTIONS AND CTF HQs TEMPLATE FOR PO Module 5 : PO – KEY PLANNING DOCUMENTS Module 6 : PEACE OPERATIONS – CTF PLANNING PROCESS RETURN TO PREFACE
Module 1 Peace Operations Basics Return to Main Menu Proceed with Module 1
Preface – Module 1 • This Peace Operations Module is based upon: • Multinational inputs from Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT) nations • Multinational Force Standing Operating Procedures (MNF SOP) developed by MPAT participating nations • Numerous doctrinal publications from United Nations documents, national multinational sources, Joint Publications series, and other key Peace Operations articles (see references section of this module) • A review of the MNF SOP (Part A & B) and of other supporting MNF Workshop Modules will assist in gaining an understanding of Peace Operations • To establish your base knowledge of Peace Operations (based upon MNF SOP) please take the Pretest before proceeding. Review MNF SOP Review SOP Workshop Module Take Pretest/Post-Test Proceed on with Module 1
Key Definitions • MNF: Multinational Force – Broad Overarching Term • Describes the broader force of participating Nations’ governments, agencies, and includes the Strategic Military Planning Headquarters (HQ). • The entire organization of nations, participating forces, and support based upon shared interests. • Two Types of MNF Operations: • Coalition: Ad-Hoc / Crisis Based • Combined: Alliance / Treaty Based (Example: Regional Organization - NATO)
Key Definitions(continued) • CTF: Coalition / Combined Task Force (operational level of planning and operations) • Coalition TF (CTF): Ad-Hoc / Crisis Based • Combined TF (CTF): Alliance / Treaty / Regional Organization Based (predeterminedguidelines and / or contingency plans present) These definitions support the MNF SOP focus upon the operational level of planning and operations (task force level).
Elements of National & International Power will be used – not just one dimension: • Diplomatic • Economic • Information • Military • Psycho-Social Peace Operations “There are no standard Peace Operations” JP 3-07.3
Peace Operations Challenges • Each Peace Operation will have its own unique situational setting • Unique political factors • Unique diplomatic characteristics • Unique geographical, cultural, language, and security characteristics
Who Executes Peace Operations? • United Nations (UN) – 2 Types • UN Sanctioned/Authorized operations (Regional Organizational Led (Combined) or Multinational Led (Coalition – Lead Nation concept) • UN Sponsored/Mandated operation (UN Chain of Command – UN led) • Regional Organization (Combined) Led (NATO, OAU, etc.) • Non-UN Alliance / Treaty based • Multinational Organization (Coalition) Led • Lead Nation Concept (Non-UN) • Multinational Crisis Action Planning Ops • Ad-hoc based on emerging crisis / No regional framework is present to address crisis Note: There are significant differences in the Command Relationships, Control, and Coordination Processes for the above PO options – see Module 4
Broad Categories of Peace Operations Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) Peace Enforcement Operations (PEO) • Note –Terminology Differences: Many variations in terminology. • UN commonly refers to Peace Operations as Peacekeeping and also uses the term Peace Support Operations (PSO) at times. • NATO uses the term PSO. • Other nations use variations of terminology (based upon political and operational implications / factors). • The MNF SOP will use the overarching term of Peace Operations with two broad categories of operations as outlined above for clarity in mission planning.
Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) Purpose: Designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement (cease fire, truce, and other related agreements) and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement. Key Factor: Undertaken with consent of all majorparties to a dispute.
Title: Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai (MFO) Mission: A Multinational (non-UN) operation empowered by Egypt and Israel to supervise truce provisions in the Sinai Peninsula. Nations: Ten participating nations including US and Asia-Pacific partners, Fiji and New Zealand. Years: Operation began in 1982. It is an ongoing mission. Mission Background: The MFO is a Multinational peacekeeping mission, created as a result of the 1978 Camp David Accords and the 1979 Treaty of Peace. Since 1982, various nations have contributed military and civilian personnel to serve in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. The ten participating nations include Australia, Canada, Columbia, Fiji, France, Hungary, Italy, New Zealand, Uruguay, and the United States. Headquarters for the Sinai MFO mission is in Rome, Italy. “The mission of the Sinai MFO is, very simply, to OBSERVE, VERIFY, and REPORT.”--MNF Observer Team PKO Example #1
Timeline of the Sinai Peninsula 1973 - Present UN unable to obtain authority for PK Force Camp David Agreement Egypt & Israel withdraw to armistice lines Yom Kippur War US organizes & deploys MFO ONGOING MISSION • Ongoing Peacekeeping Mission • Operation of checkpoints • Periodic verification of peace provisions • Additional verifications as requested by parties to Agreement • Freedom of navigation through Straits of Tiran 1973 1979 1982 Non-UN Multinational Led Operation WAR!
Title: United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) Mission: UN sanctioned/authorized (UN led) operation, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is lead. Mandate requires monitoring cessation of hostilities; verifying redeployment of Ethiopian and Eritrean Forces; and monitoring a security zone. Nations: More than 40 including US and Bosnia- Herzegovina PKO Example #2 Years: 31 July 2000 to Present Date Mission Background: Fighting broke out between the two African nations in May of 1998 as a result of a border dispute. The UN Secretary General requested mediation and in July of 1999 a framework for redeployment was agreed upon. Tensions remained high and in May of 2000 hostilities resumed. Diplomatic activities intensified, and in May the OAU implemented a cease fire agreement. Two months later the Security Council established UNMEE as an official Peacekeeping mission.On 12 Dec 2000 negotiations concluded with a comprehensive Peace Agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Termination of the mission is linked to the completion of the delimitation and demarcation of the Ethiopian-Eritrean border areas.
UNMEE Mission Background In July 2000 100 observers were assigned to the mission and up to 4,200 military personnel were authorized. The mission also introduced the use of SHIRBRIG, Stand-by High Readiness Brigade for Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Tasks. In the meantime, negotiations continued for a final and comprehensive settlement of the dispute. On the mission of UNMEE: “We have a job to do, we shall do If effectively and efficiently, then we will withdraw.” UN Secretary General
SHIRBRIG Deploys OAU Framework Agreement Fighting Resumes UNMEE Established Comprehensive Peace Agreement Agreement on cessation of hostilities Eritrea/Ethiopia Border dispute Severe Drought; 8 million effected July 1999 May 2000 May 1998 March 2000 June 2000 July 2000 December 2000 November 2000 UN Sponsored (UN Lead) Operation UNMEE Timeline UN Sponsored/Mandated Peacekeeping Mission/Ch VI 31 July 2000
Peace Enforcement Operations (PEO) Purpose: Use of necessary means up to and including military force to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to establish security, peace and order. Key Factor: Application of appropriate means, military force or clear threat of military force to compel compliance of parties involved.
Title: UNPROFOR--United Nations Protection Force initially to Croatia then to BH IFOR—NATO led, UN Sanction force to BH, Croatia and Serbska Mission: Initial mandate was to “create conditions of peace and security” in Slovenia and Croatia under Chapter VI. The mission was expanded to include BH and placed under Chapter VII. When that mission failed to achieve its objectives, the US sponsored a peace process that resulted in a UN sponsored NATO led Ch VII operation to enforce provisions of Dayton Accords. PEO Example #1 Nations: UNPROFOR began with the force of 10,000 troops. With commitment of IFOR, NATO member countries sent more than 60,000 troops and civilian police to the region. Years: Feb 1992 – 1995 UNPROFOR; 1995 - Present Date IFOR/SFOR Mission Background: UN Security Council established UNPROFOR in the wake of the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Conflict broke out in l991 when the Yugoslav Federal Army attempted to reestablish control over Slovenia and Croatia. The UN mandate changed several times as the conflict generated humanitarian relief requirements. The Dayton Accords took effect in December of 1995 and a NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) moved into the region. The introduction of allied armor, attack aviation and ground combat forces backed by the will of participating nations curtailed the actions of the Serbs and other indigenous forces.
UNPROFOR Withdraws • Unable to perform PE operations • Cumbersome decision process • Dayton Peace Accord • Formal ceasefire • Sebrenicia • UN Protected Area • Atrocities committed CIVIL WAR UN Sanctioned/Authorized – Regional Organization Led (Combined) Transition UN / NATO Peace Enforcement-IFOR-1995-96 SFOR-1996-present Jul 1995 1992-Yugoslavia dissolves- Yugoslav federal army attempted to regain control of Slovenia & Croatia Dec 1995 NATO MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA (Combined) UN PROTECTION FORCE (UNPROFOR) Timeline of a Peace Operation Balkan Region—Bosnia/Herzegovina 1992-Present ONGOING UN/NATO MISSION UN Sponsored/Mandated Op (UN Lead)
UN/NATO MISSIONS TO THE BALKANS BACKGROUND The civil side of the mission in BH was overseen by the Office of the High Representative, a creation of the Dayton Process. The UN was charged with providing the International Police Training Force under the supervision of UNMIBH. SFOR accomplished all of the military objectives of DAYTON. Although, still under Peace Enforcement authority, Peacekeeping activities are now being used in areas where consensus has been achieved.
Title: UN Missions to East Timor • UNAMET—UN Observer Mission (PKO) • INTERFET - UN Sanctioned/Authorized – Multinational Coalition -- Lead Nation (PEO) • UNTAET - UN Sponsored/Mandated – UN Led (PEO / PKO / Peace Building) • Mission: Multiple mandates beginning with Peacekeeping and culminating in a Peace Enforcement mission with transitionto civil administration. PEO Example #2 Years: 1999-present Nations: More than 40 Mission Background: East Timorese independence vote set off a spasm of violence and destruction. UN Peacekeepers were quickly isolated. UN Security Council then sanctioned/authorized an international force to restore security.
Note that UN Peace Operations in this region overlapped in time and included multiple mandates. “There could be casualties. And the Australian public should understand that. It is a serious, dangerous operation.”--Australian Prime Minister John Howard, August 1999 UN MISSIONS TO EAST TIMOR ADDITIONAL MISSION BACKGROUND UN assistance to E. Timor conducted in three phases: • UNAMET— Referendum monitoring UN Observer Mission. 11 June-25 Oct 1999 UN Sponsored/Mandated – UN led (PKO) • INTERFET—Peace Enforcement with Australia as lead nation. Ch. VII 15 Sept 1999-23 Feb 2000. UN Sanctioned/Authorized (Multinational Coalition – Lead Nation Concept) (PEO) • UNTAET— Peace Enforcement, Peacekeeping, and Peace Building. 25 Oct 1999 to Present Date. UN Sponsored (UN Led)
Timeline of a Peace Operation Pacific Region—East Timor 1999-Present UN authorizes INTERFET; Australia is LN (PE Chap VII) UNTAET authorized to build internal capacity once order is restored Autonomy Ratified Security Restored; INTERFET hands over to UNTAET Nationhood Declared Observer Mission/Vote Referendum UNMISET Transition Transition 30 Aug 99 25 Oct 99 UNTAET UN Resolution May 20, 2002 **15 Sept 99 INTERFET UN Resolution** 11 June 99 **23 Feb 00 UNTAET assume responsibility ** May 02 UN Transitional Administration in E. Timor (UNTAET) UN Mission to E. Timor (UNAMET) Peacekeeping Mission (UN Mandated/ Sponsored-UN Led Operation) Rioting Begins Peace Enforcement Mission (UN Sanctioned/Authorized – Multinational Coalition– Lead Nation) Peace Enforcement / Keeping Peace Building Mission (UN Sponsored/ Mandated – UN Led Operation)
Peace Operations Peace Keeping Operations designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement Peace Enforcement Operations designed to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to establish security, peace and order Military Operations can support Diplomatic Efforts (three areas) Preventive Diplomacy Diplomatic actions taken in advance to avert a crisis Peacemaking Process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement Peace Building Post-conflict actions, predominately diplomatic, economic, and security related that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions Mutually Supportive Peace Operations Activities Peace Operations are normally interwoven with one another…PKO being executed with Preventive Diplomacy and Peacemaking ongoing; or PKO and PEO could be ongoing in same CTF AO (but in different regions of country).
Legal Basis for Peace Operations • UN Charter – Resolutions/Mandates based on the UN Charter as a whole primarily Chapters VI, II, and VIII • VI – Pacific Settlement of Disputes – Addresses peaceful means • VII – Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of Peace, and Acts of Aggression –Addresses enforcement actions • VIII – Regional Arrangements – Regional arrangements to maintain peace & security • International Treaties/Multinational Agreements/Conventions • National Constitutions/Declarations/ Resolutions/Statutory Authorizations
Doctrinal Principles of PO The following are the principles of Peace Operations: • Objectives • Security • Unityof Effort • Legitimacy • Impartiality • Consent • Perseverance • Restraint • Freedom of Movement • Credibility • Flexibility • Use of Force • Transparency • Mutual Respect • Civil Military Cooperation
Distinction Between PKO and PEO • Of the previously mentioned principles the three main principles are: • Consent • Use of Force • Impartiality
Distinction between PKO and PEO Impartiality does not denote neutrality, it is, however, a constant and may be applied as follows: **May be considered as principled impartiality
Complex Emergencies (Contingencies) • Since 1990, Peace Operations have moved from interstate conflicts to intrastate. Complex Emergencies are now the norm • Failed states - total breakdown of government institution & infrastructures • Term used to describe Humanitarian Operations (concurrent with PO) that have the following dimensions: • A complex, multi-party, intra-state conflict resulting in a humanitarian disaster which might constitute multi-dimensional risks or threats to regional and international security. • Peace Operations now must be executed along with the challenges of rebuilding societies, re-establishing institutions, promoting good governance. • Restoring infrastructure, economy, security, and reducing human suffering.
CTF Planning Challenges for PO • Uncertainty, ambiguity, and lack of clarity will dominate Peace Operations – transition plans will be the norm as missions shift • Inclusive and detailed civil-military planning is paramount to PO success. Military is in support of the larger political / civil mission • Peace Operations are not static…will be dynamic and ever-changing (grey areas will be present) Example: Cease-fire present, but breaks down over time. Critical factors of consent, impartiality, and use of force are realigned. The above factors may vary within various sectors of CTF AO. • Contingency planning is an on-going process that requires full CTF Commander emphasis • Stresses need for continual situational assessment and planning by the Future Plans cell within the CTF Planning Process
Contingency Planning is Essential to Address Grey Areas PEO PKO PEO Purpose: Use of military force to compel compliance with resolution / sanctions Key Factor: Consent of parties to dispute is limited or nonexistent for PEO force Goal: Restore security, peace and order • PKO • Purpose: Monitor/facilitate implementation of an agreement • Support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement Key Factor: Consent of parties to dispute enables PKO Force Goal: Support implementation of mandate agreement • Grey Area • Factors shaping the grey area include: • Consent • Impartiality • Use of Force • Diplomatic/political variables • Humanitarian considerations • Dynamic Situation • Uncertainty
Return to Main Menu Take Post-Test Proceed to Module 2 Peace Operations Summary • Peace Operations • PKO • PEO • Complex Emergencies (Contingencies): PKO or PEO combined with Humanitarian operations (the norm for Peace Operations after 1990) • Executed by: • UN – 2 Types (UN sponsored/mandated or UN sanctioned/authorized) • UN Sanctioned/Authorized • Regional Organization Led (Combined) • Multinational Led (Coalition - Lead Nation Concept) • UN Sponsored/Mandated (UN Led) • Regional Organization Led (Combined – Non UN Led) • Multinational Organization Led (Coalition – Non UN Led – Lead Nation) • Legal basis – UN Charter / International Treaties, Multinational Agreements, Conventions/ National Constitutions, Declarations, Resolutions, Statutory Authorizations • Special emphasis must be placed upon Mission Analysis, Commander’s Estimate and Contingency Planning
Peace Operations Pretest/Post-Test • It is recommended that the Pretest/Post-Test below be taken now. • A score of 70% or less indicates that you should review this module again. Take the Pretest/Post-Test Return to Module 1 Preface Proceed to Module 2
Pretest/Post-Test – Module 1 • GRADING NOTE: Please record you answers on a separate piece of paper, you will grade yourself. The below questions are not “set up” to be computer graded at this time (working action). • What are the two types of Peace Operations? • A. Peacekeeping and Peacemaking • B. Peacemaking and Peace Building • C. Peace Enforcement and Peacemaking • D. Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement • Only the UN can execute Peace Operations. • A. True • B. False • A complex emergency (or sometimes called complex contingency) is: • A. Only applies to Peace Operations under UN-led operations • B. Peace Operations conducted simultaneously with Humanitarian Operations • C. A combination of Peace Enforcement and Peacekeeping Operation • D. A time-sensitive crisis involving only Peace Building
CTF Stands for what? • A. Combined Task Force only • B. Coalition Task Force only • C. Can be Combined or Coalition Task Force • D. None of the above • Planning for Peace Operations requires special emphasis in the areas of: • A. Mission Analysis, Commander’s Estimate and Contingency Planning • B. Personnel assignment and staff functions • C. Special plans for media support • D. None of the above • If three factions with a country agree to a ceasefire and also agree to the deployment of a multinational force to enforce the ceasefire agreement, this is a: • A. Peacemaking Mission • B. Peace Enforcement Mission • C. Peace Building Mission • D. Peacekeeping Mission Pretest/Post-Test – Module 1
What are the two types of UN Peace Operations (from a command relationship perspective)? • A. UN sponsored and UN mandated • B. UN mandated and UN directed • C. UN sponsored/mandated and UN sanctioned/authorized • D. UN declared and UN directed • What UN Charter chapters involve Peace Operations? • A. VI and VII • B. VI, VII and VIII • C. IV and V • D. Chapter VII only • The three main principal factors for Peace Operations are: • A. Consent, impartiality, communications • B. Consent, impartiality, use of force • C. Political Objectives, use of force, legality • D. Consent, UN mandate, use of force Pretest/Post-Test – Module 1
Pretest/Post-Test – Module 1 • If a Country has serious instability issues with three factions fighting within a country and a UN mandate is passed to deploy a multinational force to the Country to take whatever means are necessary to stop the fighting and restore stability (Note: one faction agrees with the mandate), this is a: • A. Peacemaking Mission • B. Peace Enforcement Mission • C. Peacekeeping Mission • D. Peace Building Mission =============================================================== Now move to the next slide to check your answers you have recorded and compute your score
Test Results • The correct answers are: • D • B • B • C • A • D • C • B • B • B • You scored ______ correct answers for a ______% score. • If your score is less than 70% or less it is recommended that Module 1, The Basics be reviewed. Review Module 1 Slides Only Review Module 1 w/ Narrative Return to Main Menu Proceed to Module 2
MNF SOP Under Construction MNF SOP Under Construction Return to Module 1 Preface Return to Preface -Module 4 Return to Preface -Module 4 Part D Return to Main Menu
SOP Workshop Module Under Construction MNF SOP Under Construction Return to Module 1 Preface Return to Main Menu
Review Module 1 Slides Only Under Construction MNF SOP Under Construction Return to Test Results Return to Main Menu
Review Module 1 w/ Narrative Under Construction MNF SOP Under Construction Return to Test Results Return to Main Menu
Print Function Under Construction MNF SOP Under Construction Return to Test Results Return to Main Menu
Module 2 Peace Operations Realities & Operational Model Return to Main Menu Review Module 1 Proceed with Module 2
Peace Operations Realities • Support vs. Victory: CTF Commanders and Staff are required to understand the following realities of Peace Operations • The military is always in support of the larger political / civil mission (military is a component of a larger effort). • In Peace Ops, there is neither an enemy nor a military victory. The military task is to set the conditions to enable other agencies to achieve the overall political end state outlined in the mandate. • Military can: • Temporize • Maintain situation • Reduce levels of violence • Induce compliance
Peace Operations Realities(Continued) • Basic Mission:The ambit of appropriate ROE. The military mission will revolve around establishing or maintaining a safe, secure, and stable environment • Civil-Military Planning / Coordination:Identification of the civil-military tasks required by the mandate and identification of the main causes for the crisis is a critical action during the initial CTF Mission Analysis and Commander’s Estimate
POPULATION INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (IO) CIVIL- MILITARY CTF COALITION FORCES NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGO) CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES POLITICAL NATIONAL CIVIL- MILITARY MILITARY- MILITARY NATIONAL LEVEL MILITARIES PARAMILITARY GROUPS Ref: COE CTF Only a Component !! PEACE OPERATIONS SUCCESS IS NOT A MILITARY SOLUTION
21st Century Peace Operations • Operates within Complex Emergencies instead of classical Peacekeeping • Since 1990 the norm has been intrastate conflicts. Complex Emergencies are now the norm (e.g. failed states) • Peace Operations operate within a continuum of civil-military operations
Evolution of UN Peacekeeping • First Generation - Traditional Peacekeeping (1948-1990) • Second Generation - Expanded Peacekeeping that included Peace Enforcement Operations (1990-1995) • Third Generation - Expanded Peacekeeping within the limits of the UN’s ability. More complex, smaller in size and focused on Peace Building. Generally this does not include Peace Enforcement (Chapter VII) Operations (1995-1999) • Fourth Generation - Expanded Peacekeeping, but the United Nations is taking on more nation building activities. Lead Nations and Regional Organizations conducting Peace Enforcement Operations (1999-present) Ref: PKI