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Continuing Trends in Plant Evolution

Continuing Trends in Plant Evolution

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Continuing Trends in Plant Evolution

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  1. Continuing Trends in Plant Evolution • Ultimate reduction of water-dependent gametophyte • double fertilization • Vascular tissue – improved more • Herbaceous habit • Secondary compounds • Flowers – more efficient pollen • Fruits – seed dispersal Green: all these are in sporophyte

  2. Flowers & fruits • Flowers attract & encourage pollinators • Fruits aid in dispersal of seeds

  3. Flowers & fruits • Flower a major advancement • Flower parts are modified leaves • Sepals – protect flower in bud • Petals – attract pollinators • Stamens – produce pollen • Pistil(s) – produce and protect ovules • Fruit develops from ovary

  4. Flower Pistil

  5. Fruit

  6. Flowering plant life cycle Meiosis Pollen grain ♂ Sporophyte Seed dispersal & germination Meiosis Ovary Gametophytes Ovule ♀ Fertilization (double)

  7. Evolution of flower & fruit • First fossils: late Jurassic period of Mesozoic era • Diversified during Cenozoic era • Coevolution with pollinators

  8. Fruits Orchid

  9. Flowering plants survey • “Angiosperms” (= covered seed) • Phylum Anthophyta • Magnolias – primitive • Monocots – grasses, palms, lilys, etc. • Eudicots – everything else

  10. Magnolia

  11. Monocots Oriental lily Grass family, Andropogon

  12. Eudicot Pear Pyrus

  13. Vaccinium deliciosum

  14. Eucalyptus

  15. Smallest flower Water Meal, Wolffia Largest flower Rafflesia and friends

  16. What does this pollinate??? Large, hairy bee fly from Stehekin