End of the Republic • After Caesar died • His 18 year old grandnephew Octavian joined forces with Marc Antony (Caesar’s general) and Marcus Lepidus • Second triumvirate defeated Caesar’s assassins in 42BCE Lepidus Octavian Antony
Second triumvirate did not last long • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire from political life • Octavian declared war on Antony when he married Cleopatra • 31BCE-Octavian’s forces fought sea battle at Actium in Greece • A year later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide in Egypt to avoid capture • Octavian became undisputed ruler of Rome
Background info… • Octavian believed Rome needed one strong leader • Senate agreed and appointed Octavian consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life-27BCE • Octavian gave himself the title of Augustus-Majestic One
Rome became an Empire and Augustus was the Emperor. Augustus Caesar
Imperialism • a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Reasons for Imperial Rome • Imperial = empire = large area under single rule • Failure to have change of power from one emperor to the next. • Civil war giving rise to Octavian (Augustus) Caesar.
Under Augustus • Left Senate in tact (mainly as advisors). • Civil service started to enforce laws. • Fair tax system • Used a census to count all who should be taxed How can a census help create a fair tax system? • Put jobless to work building roads and temples and sent other to farm • Economic life grew prosperous. • Under Augustus Pax Romana began
Pax Romana • 31BCE- “Roman Peace” • Peace lasted for 200 years • Augustus chose his own heir carefully, but did not derive any law for selection of later emperors. • Problems arose when new emperors came to power
Emperors during Pax Romana • Caligula = crazy = favorite horse named a consul • Nero persecuted the Christians and started a fire that destroyed most of Rome • Hadrian had a wall created in Britain to hold back enemies • Marcus Aurelius focused on philosophy
Economic Impact of Imperialism • Augustus established a uniform system of money. • Enhanced trade. Why would establishing uniform system of money enhance trade? • Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads. • Prosperity and stability of economy.
Social Impact of Imperialism • Stability returned to social classes – end of civil wars. • Middle class enjoyed more rights and a better life. • Increased focus on family. How could focusing on family strengthen the Roman Empire?
Political Impact of Imperialism • Stable government. • Created a civil service system to make internal improvements to Rome. • This also gave jobs to middle class. • Developed a uniform rule of law for all of Rome. • Today Roman law is the foundation of law that developed in Western Europe and the U.S.
Roman Culture and Contributions • Rome embraced and adopted the culture of the Ancient Greeks. • Conquest spread Roman culture and technology throughout Europe. • Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome. What is meant by Western Civilization?
1. Art and Architecture • Pantheon • Domed structure with seven recesses to honor the gods of the planets. • Has open “eye” in the center to let in sunlight (skylight). • Today it is a church in Rome.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=305niNDG8c4 The Pantheon
Colosseum • Held 50,000 people. • Took a decade to construct. • Center for entertainment (gladiators, Christian sacrifices, mazes, naval battles). • Model for modern stadiums.
Video Clip: Unsolved History: The Roman Colosseum Touring the Colosseum http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=0CCD2227-04DF-4B18-96A8-CB669BD61267
Forum (video) • Public places for political debate. • Contained a number of separate buildings.
Circus Maximus • Rome’s race track – Chariot Races • Believed to hold 250,000 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aksOAH7dYsQ – Overall view
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3AAHljDbGtA – BEN HUR CHARIOT RACE
2. Technology Aqueducts • Artificial channels for carrying water. • From mountains and springs to cities using gravity. • From as far as 57 miles away. • Lofty arches built of stone. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTMrfyAt6Mo
Roads • “All roads lead to Rome” • Built of stone, extended throughout Rome for 180,000 miles. • Cement wasn’t needed because stones were masterfully fitted together. • Connected the empire for unity. What other civilization had a large road system?
Roman Roads http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yu94sFmNwMw
Greco-Roman Culture • Rome borrowed heavily from Greek culture • Blending of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman culture that spread as Rome spread
3. Science • Romans tended to leave scientific research to other people like the Greeks • Ptolemy – mathematician/astronomer – proposed theory that Earth was at the center of the universe. • This was believed for 1,500 years. • His work allowed later astronomers to predict the motion of planets.