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Unit 2

Unit 2. Topics 1 – 4 5 & 8 DO NOT ANSWERS QUESTIONS 6 AND 7. Topic 1: Population Dynamics. Demographic Transition Model . Population Pyramids. Optimum Population. Over population Under population How can it be managed?. China One Child Policy. Singapore have 3 or more.

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Unit 2

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  1. Unit 2 Topics 1 – 4 5 & 8 DO NOT ANSWERS QUESTIONS 6 AND 7

  2. Topic 1: Population Dynamics • Demographic Transition Model

  3. Population Pyramids

  4. Optimum Population • Over population • Under population • How can it be managed?

  5. China One Child Policy

  6. Singapore have 3 or more

  7. Topic 2: Consuming resources • Non – renewable – cannot be remade, can only be used once. • Renewable – replaces itself • Recyclable – resources that can be deliberately renewed e.g. wood

  8. Alternative resources: Benefits & Costs • Tar sand oil • Bio fuels • Solar energy

  9. Named resources and consumption: Oil • ‘For a named resources describe the inequalities in its consumption.’ • Oil • Sub Saharan Africa • USA • China

  10. Consumption theories

  11. Reducing our resources • Recycling • Get on your bike • Conservation • Why don’t people do it?

  12. How can technology save the day? • Hydrogen economy • Solar panels • Wind turbines

  13. Topic 3: Globalisation • Clark Fisher Model

  14. Work and working conditions • Ethiopia (developing country) *informal sector* • China (NIC) • UK (developed country)

  15. The Global economy Players Networks Flows Major players: TNCs, WTO, IMF, World Bank, UN

  16. TNCs • Characteristics: Multinational, head offices & designers in developed countries, manufacturing in developing countries. • Secondary sector Example: Toyota HQ Japan, Global manufacturing to be close to the market and overcome tax barriers. • Tertiary sector example: Tesco HQ UK, products from all over the world e.g. flowers from Kenya

  17. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) • This is when one country became involved in the business of another. For example in the past the UK invested into China so they could set factories up there. • Now China are investing in parts of Africa e.g. Sudan. • Do they do this to help the country or for their own gain?

  18. Topic 4: Development Dilemmas • What is development? • Measuring development: • Gross Domestic Product • Human Development Index • Happy Planet Index • Gender Inequality Index • ‘Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using the Human development index.’ (6 marks)

  19. The development gap • Named example: Tanzania • Barriers to development: • Corruption • Lack of equality • Drought • HIV/Aids (1.4 m) • High fertility rates • Global oil and food prices • ‘For two of the problems shown above describe how they are barriers to development.’ (4 marks)

  20. Development theories • The Rostow model • Traditional society • Pre conditions for take off • Take off • Drive to maturity • High mass consumption ‘What is the Rostow model and why has it been criticised?’

  21. Development approaches • Top down: Three Gorges Dam, China/ San Antonia Dam, South America • Bottom Up: Hand pumps in Tanzania/ Micro – hydro dams, Peru • ‘Using named examples compare the main features of a top down and bottom up approach.’ (6 marks)

  22. Topic 5: The Changing economy of the UK • Primary sector changes – Agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining • Secondary sector changes – Deindustrialisation vs. growth in luxury car industry • Tertiary and quaternary sectors – growth since 1970s

  23. Contrasting regions: north East and South east England • North east • Used to be dominated by steel production. • In 1971 manufacturing accounted for 40% of jobs by 1996 on 24%. • Tried to attract new companies through Enterprise zone. • High unemployment 11.6%

  24. South East • Low unemployment: 6.3% • Centre of service industries e.g. health and education. • Many HQ based here. • All major motorways and transport services link to here. • 4 major airports. • Large skilled work force. • Close to decision makers e.g. governement

  25. ‘Explain the main differences in the industrial structures and workforce of two contrasting areas of the UK.’ ( 8 marks)

  26. Impacts of chnagingworkj on people: Glasgow • Major power in early 1900s. • DEINDUSTRIALISED IN 1970S +S & -S • Regeneration as City of Culture 1990 +S & -S • YOU CAN USE LIVERPOOL AS AN EXAMPLE OF A PLACE OF CHANGE

  27. Green and brownfield sites • Greenfield: Dudley, West Midlands built 334 homes • Brownfield: Longbridge built new shops and restaurants. Can use London Olympics • ‘Describe costs and benefits of developing both on a brownfield and greenfield site.’ (8 marks)

  28. Diversification in employment (new jobs!) • Green sector jobs • The digital economy • Education and research • Self employment

  29. Topic 8: The challenges of a rural world • ‘Using named examples, explain the challenges facing rural areas in the developing world.’ (6 marks) • Problems facing rural developing world • Agriculture – climate change, desertification • Population change • Urbanisation • Human hazards e.g. HIV • GlobalisationRural poverty

  30. Problems facing rural developed word • Depopulation • Close of village shops • Tourist hotspots e.g. lake Windermere • Survival of farming

  31. Who can improve livelihoods? • UK • Local government, county planners, NGOs, EU, private companies • Uganda • National governments, IGOs, NGOs

  32. Developing world Example: Crops and a shop: Ethiopia • FARM – Africa (NGO) • Provide people with bottom up apporaches o help survive drought e.g. irrigation schemes. • Also provide loans which can be used to improve crops and open small shops.

  33. Improving rural infrastructure • Transport • Water and sewage disposal • Healthcare and education • Energy • Communications • Which do you think is most important and why?

  34. Developed work example: Farm Diversifaction • Not making enough money from crops? How can you boost income? • Organic crops • Farm shop • Caravan site • Café • Shooting • Paint balling • Wind turbines

  35. Making farming greener in the developed world • Arable rotation • Organic farming • Drip irrigation • Hedgerows

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