1st declension • GM and Dentistry 3rd lesson
Reading exercise Try to guess purpose and date of creation of following texts:
Transcript Bona et Collegia Vniversitatis Carolinae Pragensis, quorum proventus et fructus S. Caes[area] M[aies]tas Alimentationi Professorum Juris et Medicinae Deputavit. Collegium Magnum Carolinum Collegium Magnum Carolinum fundavit Carolus Quartus Imperator pro 12 Magistris in Artibus Anno Christi 1366 quorum duo Theologiam, unus Sacram Scrip- turam, alter Magistrum Sententiarum Praelegeret, reli- qui vero Deum Theologiae studerent et facultates profiterent et habet Pagos Poczecznize, Drahilizicze, Nerzažovicze, Psari.
Content • Grammatical cases • Latin declensions • How to distinguish between decl. • 1st declension - paradigm • Vocabulary
Grammatical Cases • In the Basic Medical Terminology only four grammatical cases are used albeit Latin posses six of them. • Nominative (Nom.), Genitive (Gen.), Accusative (Acc.), Ablative (Abl.).
The Purpose of GC • Nominative - the basic form of word. • Genitive - connects two nouns together. It is used to express attribute. Dominant noun is further specified by another noun (attribute) that has to be in Gen. • Accusative - certain prepositions in Latin require use of Acc. • Ablative - the rest of prepositions uses Abl.
Latin Declensions I. • Latin nouns could be divided to five declensions and further to groups according paradigms. • To tell apart words belonging to different declensions we must know so called “dictionary form” of word.
Dictionary Form of a Noun • Example: musculus, -i M.; caput, -itis N.; fractura, - ae F. • The df. contains nominative singular form of the word followed by genitive singular ending and a letter (M, F, N) indicating the gender. • None of those three pieces of information can be reliably guessed from the rest. You have to memorize it.
Latin Declensions II. • In the dictionary form, look at the genitive ending: • If the ending is -ae the word belongs to the 1st declension. • If the ending is -i the word belongs to the 2nd declension. • If the ending is -is the word belongs to the 3rd declension. • If the ending is -us the word belongs to the 4th declension. • If the ending is -ei the word belongs to the 5th declension.
How to apply the paradigm? In the vocabulary you have to distinguish between two parts of a word: stem and suffix (ending): endings v e n a a q u a v i a d i p h t h e r i a stems
In the 1st declension the stem will stay and the ending changes according the paradigm: endings v e n ae a q u ae v i ae d i p h t h e r i ae stems By appending -ae we create genitive grammatical case.