August 15th, 2011 • Why do you think ancient people started writing? And what do you think they based that writing on?
August 16th, 2011 What two Rivers were located in the Fertile Crescent? What impact did this have on the people living there?
August 17th, 2011 What were the major empires in the Ancient Near East? Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, Hittite, Assyrian, and Persian
August 18th, 2011 Why type of a roll did the gods play in everyday life?
August 19th, 2011 QUIZ
Mesopotamian Religion As people gathered into more organized groups they developed and shared common organized religion.
Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters • The people of Mesopotamia believed that their world was controlled by gods and goddesses, demons and monsters.
Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters • There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for everything in the world, from rivers and trees to making bread and pottery.
Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters • Demons were created by the gods with human bodies and animal or bird heads. They could be either evil or good. Monsters were a mixture of animals and birds.
Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters • Each city was protected by its own special god or goddess and their family. Large temples were built in the centre of the city for these gods to live in. Priests looked after the gods with special rituals. There were also smaller temples throughout the city where ordinary people could make offerings.
At the beginning of time there were only gods and goddesses on earth. They had to work the land to grow crops to eat. This was difficult and they worked very hard.
Each god and goddess had a job to do. Some dug the fields and planted the crops. Others brought water to the fields in ditches which had to be kept clear of weeds.
The work was hard, and they were not happy. They got together to discuss what could be done to lighten their workload.
They went to get advice from Enki, who was wise and clever. Enki was fast asleep in his underwater house.
Enki suggested that he create creatures to serve them by working the land. Then the gods' and goddesses' lives would be easier.
The gods and goddesses thought that Enki's plan was a good solution. Enki collected clay from around his watery home and used it to make humans.
He breathed life into the clay figures, but he limited how long they would live. Only the gods and goddesses would live forever.
The humans were put to work in the fields. As servants of the gods and goddesses they had to provide them with food and drink for their tables.
The humans took water from the rivers and fed the dry and lifeless lands. They dug the soil and planted crops.
With hard work the humans brought life to the land, and the gods and goddesses, who had brought life to the humans, were happy......... for the moment...........
Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters • The Mesopotamian scribes compiled long lists of their gods.There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for every thing in the world, from rivers and mountains to making bread or pottery.
Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters • The gods were known by different names depending on whether the scribes wrote Sumerian or Akkadian.
Jericho Title: Human Skull Date: 6,000 – 5,500 BCE Great Stone Tower
Title: Reproduction of Landscape Scene of Çatal HöyükMedium: wall paintingLocation: Çatal Höyük, Turkey Date: 6,150 BCE
ZIGGURAT Drawing of Anu Ziggurat & White Temple, Uruk White Temple sanctuary 3100 BCE
Inlaid with colored materials Warka Head Medium: Marble Size: height approx. 8" (20.3 cm) Date: c. 3300–3000 BCE Location: Uruk (present-day Warka, Iraq)
Warka Vase Medium: Alabaster Stone Date: c. 2900–2600 BCELocation: Uruk (present-day Warka, Iraq)
Votive FiguresMedium: Limestone, alabaster, and gypsumSize: various sizesDate: c. 2900–2600 BCELocation: The Square Temple, Eshnunna (present-day Tell Asmar, Iraq).
Nanna (moon god) Ziggurat, Ur Date: c. 2100–2050 BCE Location: Present-day Muqaiyir, Iraq
The Great Lyre with bull’s head Medium: Wood with gold, silver, lapis lazuli, bitumen, and shell, reassembled in modern wood support Size: maximum length of lyre 55½” Date: c. 2550–2400 BCE Location: Royal tomb, Ur (present-day Muqaiyir, Iraq)
Akkadian ruler Medium: Copper Alloy Size: height 14⅜" Date: c. 2300–2200 BCE Location: Nineveh (present-day Kuyunjik, Iraq)
Stele of Naram-Sin Medium: Limestone Size: height 6'6" (1.98 m) Date: c. 2220–2184 BCE
Neo-SumerianLagash Dynasty Votive Statue of Gudea Medium: Diorite Size: height 29" (73.7 cm) Date: c. 2090 BCE Location: Girsu (present-day Telloh, Iraq)
BABYLON (1,900 – 1,600 BCE) Stele of Hammurabi Medium: Diorite Size: height of stele approx. 7’, height of relief 28“ Date: c. 1792–1750 BCE Location: Susa (present-day Shush, Iran)
Lion Gate Date: c. 1400 B.C.E. Location: Boghazkoy, Turkey
Ziggurat Palace Complex Kings Quarters 52’ Platform courtyard Reconstruction drawing of the citadel and palace complex of Sargon II Locaion: Dur Sharrukin (Present-Day Khorsabad, Iraq). Date: C. 721–706 BCE