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Causes of WWI Immediate Cause ----June 28, 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria PowerPoint Presentation
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Causes of WWI Immediate Cause ----June 28, 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Causes of WWI Immediate Cause ----June 28, 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria

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Causes of WWI Immediate Cause ----June 28, 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria

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  1. Causes of WWI • Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914 • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria • Hostile alliances take effect---War declared • Central Powersvs. Allied Powers • Germany Great Britain • Austria/Hungary France • Ottoman Empire Russia • Trench warfare and the Western Front • 3. President Wilson • Calls for neutrality = conflicting sympathies • US belief = right to trade with all nations • Germany and Great Britain violated this policy. WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918

  2. 4. From neutrality to war. • German policy • Unrestricted submarine warfare= USW • U-Boat, sunk the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) • Zimmerman Note:Jan. 1917 • 5. April 8, 1917 US declares war on Germany…… • Germans violated our trade and neutrality • War to end all war • The world must be made safe for democracy • Side with the Allies

  3. US ENTERS THE WAR • President Wilson: The War to End All War • War outlook in Jan. 1917 • Poor for Allies: Why? • U.S. troops in France---American Expeditionary Forces • Led by General John J. Pershing • US Troops • 2. Actions of Wilson and Congress 3. Women in WWI • worked in the factories • 19th Amendment----women’s suffrage 4. End of War • Nov. 11th = 11-11-11 = end of the war • Germans sign an armistice

  4. WWI, THE AFTERMATH 1. President Wilson’s 14 Points 2. Treaty of Versailles = Big 4 countries • Germany was forced to • pay war debts = reparations---$53 billion • Remain disarmed • Lost all colonies • Responsible for war • Created new countries • 3. Wilson’s Problems at Home • Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles • Does not join the League of Nations…….Why? • Lodge vs. Wilson • Draw U.S. into another war • Took away Congress’s power to declare war. • Americans wanted neutrality

  5. 4.Results of Treaty of Versailles • New democracies would fail without US aid • Germany: treaty of revenge = leads to WWII 5. Post war adjustments….

  6. 1st World War in history • Great War or War to End all War • Not called WWI until after WWII • Total war • Involved 60 nations and 6 continents

  7. NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

  8. NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

  9. Trench Warfare

  10. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land” “Suicide Ditch" was a term used by British soldiers to refer to the front-line trench.

  11. TRENCH WARFARE

  12. NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

  13. The Zeppelin The first zeppelin raid on London was on 31 May 1915.  Earlier raids in January 1915 had avoided London.  The London raid resulted in 28 deaths and 60 injuries.

  14. FlameThrowers GrenadeLaunchers

  15. Poison Gas Machine Gun

  16. LEADERS AND HEROES OF WWI Franz Ferdinand Kaiser Wilhem President Wilson Czar Nicholas Gen. John J. Pershing Sen. Henry Lodge Sergeant Alvin York Eddie Baron Manfred VladamirLeninnRickenbackervon Richthofen Central Powers Allied Powers

  17. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Nationalism • Countries proud of their heritage and culture • Similar topatriotism • Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country • Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.

  18. 4. Aggressive Nationalism

  19. ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule.

  20. alliances1 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI • Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. • Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. • This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo

  21. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Imperialism • France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia • economic and political control over other countries…… • these countries were in competition for colonies

  22. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism

  23. Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900

  24. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Militarism • European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……

  25. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars. By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world….The Great White Fleet

  26. Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism!

  27. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Alliances • European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. • Triple Alliance Triple EntenteCentral PowersAllied Powers • Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Empire FranceBulgaria Russia

  28. alliances2 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI • August 3Germany declared war on France • 6. August 3Great Britain declared war on Germany • August 6Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. • August 12Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary

  29. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain Germany Austrian-Hungarian Empire France Russia Turkey Italy

  30. GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM battle fronts • German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. • Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army • Belgium puts up a strong fight. • 1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. • France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918

  31. US and Mexico • “It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees.” • "I wish to die as a slave to principles, not to men" • campaigned for the restoration of village lands confiscated by hacendados. His slogan was "Tierra y Libertad." • supported the idealistic Madero. • Plan called for the seizure of all foreign owned land, all land taken from villages, • confiscation of one-third of all land held by "friendly" hacendados • On April 10, 1919, Zapata was tricked into a meeting with one of Carranza's generals and Zapata was killed as he arrived at the meeting.

  32. notes2 US POLICY BEFORE WWI • US believed • It had the right to trade with the warring nations • Warring nations must respect ourneutrality • in the freedom of the seas • German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality

  33. Effects of Allied blockade • 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers • 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million • Allied trade • Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period • WWI transformed the US from a debtorto a creditornation

  34. SUBMARINE WARFARE • The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. • Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats • Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.

  35. U-Boats • Two types • small subs with a crew of 24 • larger subs with a crew of 60 • 44 by 1918 • By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.

  36. SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA • May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. • Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. • Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. • U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. • US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians

  37. Lusitania

  38. X Sussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March 1916. Germany promised not to sink anymore ships.

  39. ZIMMERMAN NOTE Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of Februarywe intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with

  40. ZIMMERMAN NOTE with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes

  41. zimmerman code

  42. zimmerman code