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Great Scientists and Engineers. Katherine Stammer Intro to Systems Science and Engineering November 2, 2009. Overview. John von Neumann Eugene Wigner George Dantzig Richard Bellman Rudolf Kalman. John Von Neumann (1903-1957).

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## Great Scientists and Engineers

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**Great Scientists and Engineers**Katherine Stammer Intro to Systems Science and Engineering November 2, 2009**Overview**• John von Neumann • Eugene Wigner • George Dantzig • Richard Bellman • Rudolf Kalman**John Von Neumann (1903-1957)**Made remarkable contributions to game theory, computer science, mathematical logic, and quantum mechanics**Early Life and Education**• Born in Budapest, Hungary • Called a child prodigy for his abilities in mathematics and memorization • Went to FasoriEvangélikusGimnázium for secondary school at the same time Eugene Wigner was there • Earned a degree in Chemical Engineering from ETH Zurich in Switzerland simultaneously with his Ph.D. in Mathematics from PázmányPéter University in Budapest**Work**• University of Berlin—1926 • Made contributions to logic and set theory • Researched game theory • Princeton—1929 • Spent one term in Princeton and one term in Germany for four years • In 1933, along with Albert Einstein, became one of the first four faculty of the Institute for Advanced Study • During World War II worked in weapons development at Los Alamos • Directed the Electronic Computer Project • MANIAC (mathematical analyzer, numerical integrator and computer), the fastest computer of its kind, run on thousands of vacuum tubes • MANIAC enabled calculations necessary for the hydrogen bomb model • Published the classic Theory of Games and Economic Behaviorwith Oskar Morgenstern in 1944 asserting that “the typical problems of economic behavior become strictly identical with the mathematical notions of suitable games of strategy'' • Served as a mathematics professor until his death in 1957 due to cancer**Honors**• Bocher Prize, the American Mathematical Society's highest award, in 1937 • Member of the National Academy of Sciences • President of the American Mathematical Society from 1951-1953 • Commissioner of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1955 • Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1956 • Albert Einstein Commemorative Award in 1956 • Enrico Fermi Award for his contributions to the design and construction of computing machines used in nuclear research and development in 1956 • Has a crater on the moon named after him**Eugene Wigner(1902-1995)**Developed the theory of symmetries and introduced group theory into quantum mechanics**Early life and Education**• Born in Budapest, Hungary • At age 11 became sick and was sent to the Austrian Mountains for six weeks • It was here that he became very interested in Mathematics • Went to FasoriEvangélikusGimnázium for secondary school at the same time John Von Neumann was there • Received PhD from the University of Berlin in 1925**Work**• University of Berlin and University of Gottingen—1925 • Lecturer • Laid the foundation for the theory of symmetries in quantum mechanics • Wigner D-Matrix • With Hermann Weyl introduced group theory into quantum mechanics • Princeton—1930 • Immigrated to the United States shortly before the Nazis came to power in Germany • Discovered that the nuclear force that binds protons and neutrons is short-range and independent of electric charge • Wrote “Group Theory and Its Application to the Quantum Mechanics of Atomic Spectra,” a classic text • University of Wisconsin, Madison—1936 • Developed the theory of neutron absorption—used in nuclear reactors • Princeton—1938 • Mathematics professor**Later Work**• University of Chicago: Manhattan Project—1939 • Wigner assisted in persuading Albert Einstein to write the historic letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt that set in motion the U.S. atomic-bomb project • Helped Enrico Fermi construct the first atomic pile • Clinton Laboratories (now Oak Ridge National Laboratory)—1941 • Director of Research and Development • Princeton—1943-1971 retirement • conducted research on quantum mechanics, the theory of the rates of chemical reactions, and nuclear structure • Wrote “Symmetries and Reflections,” highly regarded in its field**Honors**• U. S. Medal for Merit in 1946 • Enrico Fermi Prize in 1958 • Atoms for Peace Award in 1960 • Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 • "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles" • National Medal of Science in 1969 • Served as vice- president and president of the American Physical Society • Board of directors of the American Nuclear Society**George Dantzig (1914-2005)**“The father of linear programming” and the inventor of the simplex method**Education**• Earned Bachelors degrees in Mathematics and Physics from the University of Maryland in 1936 • Received Masters Degree in Mathematics from the University of Michigan • Enrolled in Doctoral Program at the University of California, Berkeley • Solved two formerly unproved statistical theorems thinking they were homework problems • Took a leave of absence to work in the U.S. Air Force Office of Statistical Control during World War II • Received PhD in 1946**Work**• Mathematics Advisor for the Air Force Controller’s Office—1946 • Formulated the linear programming problem as a mathematical model for planning deployment training and supply activities • Devised the simplex method to find the solution • RAND Corporation Mathematics Division—1952 • Extended applications of linear programming • Wrote much of the material for his book Linear Programming and Extensions • University of California, Berkeley—1960 • Professor in the Department of Industrial Engineering • Founded the Operations Research Center • Stanford—1966 • Professor of Operations Research and Computer Science • Mentored about 41 doctorate students**Later Work**• Systems Optimization Laboratory—1973 • Founded by Dantzig • Goal: “to develop computational methods and associated computer routines for numerical analysis and optimization of large-scale systems” • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg, Austria—1973 • headed the Methodology Group • Published Compact City, a book about a city shaped like a cylinder with multiply stories • Started PILOT, Planning Investment Levels Over Time, a project that used energy and economic modeling • Retired from professorship—1985 • Continued to research linear programming under uncertainty • Completed and published two volumes of a projected four-volume work on linear programming and extensions with Mukund N. Thapa**Honors**• National Medal of Science • John von Neumann Theory Prize • Elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences • Eight honorary degrees**Richard Bellman (1920-1984)**Made significant contributions to decision processes and control system theory, particularly the creation and application of dynamic programming Key work: the Bellman Equation**Education**• Earned B.A. in Mathematics from Brooklyn College in 1941 • Received M.A. in Mathematics from University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1943 • Los Alamos Theoretical Physics Group during World War II • Received his PhD from Princeton in Theoretical Physics in a record time of 3 months**Work**• Princeton Mathematics Department—1946 • RAND Corporation—1952 • Invented dynamic programming, a major breakthrough in the theory of multistage decision processes • Made important advances in invariant imbedding and quasi-linearization • University of Southern California Professor of Mathematics, Electrical Engineering, and Medicine—1965 • research activity focused on the application of mathematics to medicine and biological sciences • founded the journal "Mathematical Biosciences“ • published 619 papers and 39 books**Honors**• First Norbert Wiener Prize in Applied Mathematics, awarded in 1970 jointly by the American Mathematical Society and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics • First Dickson Prize, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1970 • John von Neumann Theory Award, awarded in 1976 jointly by the Institute of Management Sciences and the Operations Research Society of America • IEEE Medal of Honor in 1979 "For contributions to decision processes and control system theory, particularly the creation and application of dynamic programming."**Rudolf Kalman (1930-)**Co-invented the Kalman filter, a mathematical formulation that removes "noise" from series of data**Education**• Earned a Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from M.I.T. in 1953 • Received a Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering from M.I.T. in 1954 • Received ScD from Columbia University in 1957**Work**• IBM Research Laboratory—1957 • made important contributions to the design of linear sampled-data control systems using quadratic performance criteria • used Lyapunov theory for the analysis and design of control systems • Research Institute for Advanced Study (RIAS)—1958 • Research mathematician, promoted to Associate Director of Research • Unified the theory and design of linear systems with respect to quadratic criteria • Clarified the interrelations between Pontryagin's maximum principle and the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation • Developed the Kalman filter—important for control systems, used by NASA • Stanford University—1964 • Departments of Electrical Engineering, Mechanics, and Operations Research • Realization theory and algebraic system theory • University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida—1971-1992 • Director of the Center for Mathematical System Theory • Chair of Mathematical System Theory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology**Honors**• Outstanding Young Scientist of the Year by the Maryland Academy of Sciences in 1962 • IEEE Medal of Honor in 1974 "For pioneering modern methods in system theory, including concepts of controllability, observability, filtering, and algebraic structures." • IEEE Centennial Medal in 1984 • Inamori foundation's Kyoto Prize in High Technology in 1985 • The American Mathematical Society’s Steele Prize in 1987 • Richard E. Bellman Control Heritage Award in 1997 • National Academy of Engineering's Charles Stark Draper Prize in 2008**Sources**Image Sources • http://news.stanford.edu/news/2006/june7/memldant-060706.html • www.draper.com/news/images/Kalman.jpg • http://www.science.am/sciawards/images/Charles_Stark%20_Draper.jpg • http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1963/wigner.jpg • http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/jbrudvig/Technology%20Projects/webquests/student%20work/ManhattanProject_files/image002.jpg • http://www.adeptis.ru/vinci/john_von_neumann7.jpg • http://images-cdn01.associatedcontent.com/image/A2905/290597/300_290597.jpg Content Sources • http://www.ieee.org/web/aboutus/history_center/biography/bellman.html • http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1963/wigner-bio.html • http://www.nobel-winners.com/Physics/eugene_paul_wigner.html • http://www.nae.edu/cms/8968.aspx • http://www.ieee.org/web/aboutus/history_center/biography/kalman.html • http://www.nationalacademies.org/history/members/neumann.html • http://etcweb.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/Companion/von_neumann_john.html

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