Chapter 2: Principles of Curriculum Development Presented by the NRVers: Lynn Graves,Chase Lowe,Susie Cutlip, and Connie McGuire
CURRICULUM CHANGE Think about curriculum changes in your school or district: • Which changes have been successful? • Which changes have not been successful? Jot these thoughts down
“Curricularly” Terms: • Curriculum Development: more comprehensive; includes planning, implementation, and evaluation. • Curriculum Improvement: viewed as result of development. • Curriculum Planning: preliminary phase of curriculum development. Workers make decisions and take actions to establish plans.
More “Curricularly” Terms: • Curriculum implementation: translation of plans into action. • Curriculum evaluation: determines the success of both the students and the program. • Curriculum revision: the process of making changes and improving an existing curriculum.
Curriculum Axioms The whole is greater than the part
Axiom 1: Inevitability of Change Change is both inevitable and necessary, for it is through change that life forms grow and develop • human institutions • problems encouraging change • Public schools
Axiom 2: Product of Time School curriculum not only reflects,but is a product of its time • change takes about 10 years • curriculum responds to social forces • societal influence on change
Axiom 3: Concurrent changes Curriculum changes made at an earlier period of time can exist concurrently with newer curriculum changes at a later period of time. • Changes coexist and overlap • Good teachers practice this
Axiom 4: Change in People Curriculum change results from changes in people • commitment from those involved • contributions • control
Axiom 5: Cooperative Endeavor Curriculum change is effected as a result of cooperative endeavor on the part of groups. • Curriculum improvement • Small group cooperation
Axiom 6: Decision-Making Process Curriculum development is basically a decision-making process. • Choices among disciplines • Choices among viewpoints • Choices of emphasis • Choices of methods of teaching • Choices in organization of curriculum
Axiom 7: Continuous Process Curriculum development is a never-ending process. • Perfection will never be achieved • Curriculum can always be improved • Continuous monitoring is necessary
Axiom 8: Comprehensive Curriculum development is a comprehensive process. • “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”: Curriculum developers must be able to see “beyond the trees” and look “at the entire forest” • Planners must frequently view the macrocurriculum, that is the whole curriculum as distinguished from the sum of its parts.
Axiom 9: Systematic Systematic curriculum development is more effective than trial and error. • Curriculum planning should be comprehensive and follow an agreed upon set of procedures
Axiom 10: Starts from Existing The curriculum planner starts from where the curriculum is, just as the teacher starts from where the students are. • Curriculum reorganization • Can not be achieved overnight
Wrap Up • Think again about curriculum changes in your school or district. Why were some changes successful and why were they not successful? • Which axiom was influential in it being successful or not being successful?