Designing aHealthful Diet Chapter 2
Test Yourself • A healthful diet is made up predominantly of fruits and vegetables. • All foods sold in the United States must display a food label. • MyPyramid is the graphic representation of the USDA Food Guide and can be used by most Americans to design a healthful diet. • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that all Americans should consume alcohol sensibly. T F T F T F T F
A Healthful Diet • A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients. • Provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, and vitamins to maintain a person’s health. • A healthful diet is… • Adequate • Moderate • Balanced • Varied
A Healthful Diet is Moderate • Moderation refers to eating the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthful weight and optimize the body’s metabolic processes. • Do you think the portion sizes of the typical American diet is appropriate and follows the rule of “moderation”?
A Healthful Diet is Balanced • A balanced diet contains the combinations of foods to provide the proper proportion of nutrients.
A Healthful Diet is Varied • Variety refers to eating different foods from the different food groups on a regular basis. • Trying new foods on a regular basis to vary the diet.
Designing A Healthful Diet • The tools for designing a healthful diet may include: • Food Labels • Dietary Guidelines • Food Guide Pyramid • Diet Plans
Food Labels • The FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include: • A statement of identity • Net contents of the package • Ingredients list • Manufacturer’s name and address • Nutrition information (Nutrition Facts Panel)
Nutrition Facts Panel • The Nutrition Facts Panel contains the nutrition information required by the FDA. • This information can be used in planning a healthful diet.
Nutrition Facts Panel • Serving size and servings per container • Serving sizes can be used to plan appropriate amounts of food. • Standardized serving sizes allow for comparisons among similar products. • Calories per serving and calories from fat per serving • This information can be used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat.
Nutrition Facts Panel • List of nutrients • Fat (total, saturated, trans) • Cholesterol • Sodium • Carbohydrates • Protein • Some vitamins and minerals • Calcium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C
Nutrition Facts Panel • Percent Daily Values (%DV) • Tell how much a serving of food contributes to your overall intake of the listed nutrients. • Compare %DV between foods for any nutrient • Based on • Reference Daily Intake (RDI) standards for foods with RDA (protein and vitamins) • Daily Reference Values (DRV) standards for foods without RDA (fiber, cholesterol, and saturated fats)
Nutrition Facts Panel • Footnote • %DV are based on a 2,000 calorie diet • Table illustrates the difference between a 2,000 calorie and 2,500 calorie diet • Contains general dietary advice for all people • May not be present on all food labels
Nutrition Facts Panel • Nutrition Claims • Must meet FDA approved definitions • Examples: low-fat, sodium free • May be helpful for choosing more healthful foods
Dietary Guidelines • Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Developed by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services • General advice for healthful diet and lifestyle • Updated every 5 years • Most recent update was in 2005
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 • The 2005 Dietary Guidelines remain the current guidance until the 2010 Dietary Guidelines are published. • www.cnpp.usda.gov/dietaryguidelines.htm
Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs • Key Recommendations • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods • Choose foods that are limited in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol • Balanced eating patterns • Balanced eating patterns: • USDA Food Guide (MyPyramid) • DASH Eating Plan
Weight Management • Overweight or obese increases the risk for many chronic diseases: • Heart disease, diabetes, some cancers • Key recommendations: • Maintain body weight within healthful range by balancing calories from foods and beverages with calories expended • Prevent weight gain… make small decreases in calorie intake and increase physical activity
Physical Activity • Key recommendations • Regular physical activities promote health, psychological well-being, and healthful weight • Physical fitness include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise • 30-minutes daily minimum of moderate activity • 60-90 min./day on most days of the week to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss
Food Groups to Encourage • A variety of fruits and vegetables • Key nutrients: Vitamins A and C, beta carotene • Sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables each day while staying within energy needs • Choose a variety from 5 vegetable subgroups: • 3 or more ounces/day of whole grain foods • 3 cups/day of low-fat or fat-free milk or equivalent
Fats • Essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins • Energy dense • Diets high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increase blood cholesterol levels are a risk for heart disease • Key recommendations: • Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat • Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol • Trans fats should be as low as possible • Total fats: 20-30% total calories (lean protein sources)
Carbohydrates • Important source of energy and essential nutrients • Key recommendations • Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains • Prepare foods with little added sugar • Limit intake of foods high in sugar and starch • Reduce the risk of dental caries (cavities): • Practice good oral hygiene • Eat high sugar or starch foods less frequently
Sodium and Potassium • Essential for health in appropriate amounts • Potassium is linked with healthful blood pressure • Excess sodium consumption: • Linked to high blood pressure in some people • Can cause loss of calcium from bones • Key recommendations: • Consume less than 2,300 mg/day sodium (1 tsp. salt) • Choose and prepare food with little salt • Consume potassium-rich foods (fruits, vegetables)
Alcoholic Beverages • Alcohol provides calories, but no nutrients • Depresses the nervous system • Toxic to the liver and other body cells • Excess can lead to health and social problems • Key recommendations: • Drink sensibly and in moderation • Moderation: 1 drink for women, 2 for men per day • People who should not drink alcohol include… • Women of child-bearing age • Pregnant or lactating women, children, adolescents • Persons on medications that can interact with alcohol
Food Safety • Healthful diet is safe from foodborne illness • Important tips: • Store and cook foods at the proper temperature • Avoid unpasteurized juices and milk, raw or undercooked meats and shellfish • Wash hands and cooking surfaces before cooking and after handling raw meats, shellfish, and eggs
MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid • www.mypyramid.gov
MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid • MyPyramid can be used to plan a healthful diet. • Conceptual framework for the types and amounts of foods people can eat in combination to provide a healthful diet • Developed by the USDA • Will change as more is learned about nutrition • Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes • Personalized guide accessible on the Internet
MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid • MyPyramid promotes 6 health messages: • Activity • Moderation • Personalization • Proportionality • Variety • Gradual improvement
MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid • Designed to result in the following changes • Increase intake of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and essential nutrients • Lower intakes of saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol; increase intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains • Balance energy intake with energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and/or to promote a healthful weight
MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid • Six food groups: • Grains • Vegetables • Fruits • Oils • Milk • Meat
MyPyramid: Grains • “Making half your grains whole” • Eat at least 3 ounces of whole grain breads, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta each day • Foods in this group provide fiber-rich carbohydrates and are good sources of the nutrients riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, folate, zinc, protein, and magnesium
MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits • “Vary your veggies” • Eat more dark green and orange vegetables and more dry beans and peas • “Focus on Fruits” • Go easy on fruit juices • Fruits and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins A and C, folate, potassium, and magnesium
MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits • Phytochemicals • Naturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance health • Work together in whole foods in a unique way to provide health benefits • Taking individual phytochemical supplements may not work as effectively in disease prevention as consuming phytochemicals from whole foods • Found in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffee • Scientific study of phytochemicals is new • May reduce risks for chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular disease)
MyPyramid: Oils • “Know your fats” • Encourage people to select health-promoting forms of fats: fat from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils • Limit solid fats: butter, stick margarine, shortening, lard, and visible fat on meat
MyPyramid: Milk • “Get your calcium rich foods” • Suggest low-fat or fat-free dairy products • People who cannot consume dairy can choose lower-lactose or lactose-free dairy products or other calcium sources: • Calcium-fortified juices and soy and rice beverages • Dairy foods are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, protein, vitamin B-12 • Many are fortified with vitamins A and D
MyPyramid: Meat & Beans • “Go lean on Protein” • Include meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts • Encourage low-fat or lean meats and poultry • Cooking methods: baking, broiling, grilling • Good sources of protein, phosphorus, vitamins B6 and B12, magnesium, iron, zinc, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin • Legumes: good sources of fiber and vitamins (vegetables), proteins and minerals (meats)
MyPyramid: Discretionary Calories • Recent concept • Represent the extra energy a person can consume after he or she has met all essential needs by consuming nutrient–dense foods • Depends upon age, gender, physical activity • Foods that use discretionary calories: • fats: butter, salad dressing, mayonnaise, gravy • high sugar foods: candies, desserts, soft drinks
MyPyramid: Serving Sizes • What is considered a serving size? Grains (1 ounce-equivalent): • 1 slice of bread • 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal • 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal Vegetables (1 cup equivalent): • 2 cups raw leafy vegetable (spinach) • 1 cup chopped raw or cooked vegetable (broccoli)
MyPyramid: Serving Sizes • What is considered a serving size? • Meats • 3 ounces of meat is equal to 3 ounce-equivalent • 2-3 oz. of meat is about the size of a deck of cards • 1 egg, l tablespoon peanut butter, and 1/4 cup cooked dry beans are 1 oz. equivalents in the meat and beans group
MyPyramid: Serving Sizes • There is no national standardized definition for a serving size of any food • Serving size may differ from food labels • Serving sizes are often smaller than the quantities Americans typically eat.
Alternate Food Guide Pyramids • Variations of MyPyramid not yet developed for diverse population • Adaptations of previous versions of USDA Food Guide Pyramid: • Athletes – emphasized fluid replacement • Children and adults over age 70 • Vegetarian Diet Pyramid • Mediterranean Diet Pyramid • Ethnic and cultural variations
Eating an Adequate Diet • An Adequate Diet provides enough energy, nutrients, and fiber for health. • Optimal energy control • Inadequate energy deprives the body of adequate nutrients. • Too many calories result in weight gain • Optimal number of calories and servings as recommended by MyPyramid helps to maintain the proper balance of dietary energy. • Use discretionary calorie allowance wisely
Eat in Moderation • MyPyramid recommends certain numbers of servings • Foods high in fat and added sugar • Excess intake leads to weight gain and could prevent adequate intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber • Consume small amounts only occasionally • Moderation allows more nutritious foods without overeating
Eat a Balanced Diet • MyPyramid assists with planning a diet that provides the proper balance of nutrients from appropriate number of servings from each food group.
Eat a Variety of Foods • Healthful choice of foods generally is represented by many colors. • Limiting food choices may be hazardous to your health! • Possibly higher risk of premature death • Nutritional inadequacies
Choose Foods High in Nutrient Density • Foods high in nutrient density give the highest amount of nutrients for the least of energy (calories). • Maximize the nutrients for each calorie consumed
Compare Your Diet to MyPyramid • MyPyramid tracker: online food intake assessment tool • Scores the overall quality of your diet based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines. • Calculate nutrient intake from foods • Compare diet with MyPyramid guidelines • Nutrient information from dietary supplements • Healthy Eating Index available