Which of the following is not one of the processes essential to stabilizing body fluid volumes, solute concentration, or pH of the ECF? Fluid balance Acid-base balance Hormone balance Electrolyte balance
What factor contributes to the relatively higher water content of adult males compared to adult females? Males’ urinary bladders hold a larger volume of urine. Males have a higher percentage of adipose tissue. Males have a higher percentage of proteins, minerals and carbohydrates. Males have higher average muscle mass.
Which of the following are the primary ions present in ECF? Na+, Cl-, and HCO3- Na+, K+, Mg2+, and SO42- Na+, K+, and HPO42- None of the above is correct
Why do homeostatic mechanisms that adjust composition of body fluids respond to changes in the ECF, rather than ICF? The receptors monitoring electrolytes are only found in ECF. A change in one ECF component rapidly affects all body cells. ECF is contained within cells, which are physically and chemically isolated. 1 and 3 are correct.
Which hormone affecting fluid and electrolyte balance is responsible for determining the rate of Na+ absorption and K+ loss along the DCT? The natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) ADH Aldosterone All of the above are correct
Wayne’s cardiac muscle cells have been releasing ANP in response to overstretching of his heart walls. What is the effect of the release of ANP? ANP release could cause a heart attack. ANP blocks the release of ADH and aldosterone. Water is conserved at the kidneys. Blood volume and blood pressure increase.
Which of the following is true concerning metabolic generation of water? Breaking down 1 g of lipid generates more water than breaking down 1 g of carbohydrate. Metabolic generation of water is the result of overhydration. Metabolic generation of water generates about 1200 ml per day. Metabolic generation of water occurs when you lose water, but not electrolytes.
If the osmotic concentration of ECF increases, which of the following happens? ICF volume increases. Metabolic generation of water decreases. ECF becomes hypotonic to ICF. Water moves from cells into ECF.
What effect does drinking a pitcher of distilled water have on ADH secretion? Secretion of ADH increases. Secretion of ADH decreases. Increased ADH secretion prompts secretion of renin in the kidney. It is impossible to predict.
What effect would being in the desert without water for a day have on plasma osmotic concentration? Increase of osmotic concentration Decrease of osmotic concentration No effect on osmotic concentration Impossible to predict because of previous hydration level
Mr. Proctor has high blood pressure. As his physician, why do you counsel him to limit his intake of sodium? Sodium causes ICF volume to increase and increased ADH secretion. Sodium causes an increase in fat storage and increased ECF osmolarity. Sodium causes an increase in blood volume and blood pressure, and decreased ADH secretion. Sodium causes loss of other electrolytes and decreased blood volume.
Why does prolonged sweating increase plasma sodium ion levels? Sodium is excreted with sweat. Sodium decreases water retention. Potassium is lost during sweating. Sweating causes a greater loss of water than sodium.
Which is more dangerous, disturbances of sodium balance or disturbances of potassium balance? Disturbances of sodium balance Disturbances of potassium balance They are equally dangerous Neither is particularly dangerous
What is the primary cause of hypercalcemia? Hyperparathyroidism Excessive consumption of vitamin D supplements Chronic renal failure Alcoholism
Which of the following characteristics distinguishes a strong acid from a weak acid? Weak acids dissociate completely in solution. Weak acids have more profound effect on the pH of a solution. Strong acids dissociate completely in solution. 1 and 2 are correct.
What is the effect of acidosis on the circulatory system? Cardiac arrhythmias Peripheral vasoconstriction and rise in BP Peripheral vasodilation and drop in BP Cardiomyopathy
Which of the following is not one of the three major buffer systems? Phosphate buffer system Potassium buffer system Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system Protein buffer system
Which of the following is/are true of the hemoglobin buffer system? It is the only intracellular buffer system that has an immediate effect of the pH of ECF. It helps prevent drastic changes in pH when plasma PCO2 is rising or falling. It prevents changes in pH caused by organic acids and fixed acids in the ECF. 1 and 2 are correct.
Why does the tubular fluid in nephrons need to be buffered? Buffers allow for tubular modification of fluids. Lacking buffers, the kidneys would secrete too much acid. Buffers prevent increasing respiratory rate. Buffers keep the pH high enough for H+ ion secretion to continue.
What effect does a decrease in the pH of body fluids have on respiratory rate? Respiratory rate increases Respiratory rate decreases Rate of respiration remains the same, but depth of respiration increases Impossible to predict
During an asthma attack, Kristen’s bronchioles constrict, reducing pulmonary exchange. Which of the following scenarios will result? Increased breathing rate, increased plasma pH, and metabolic acidosis Decreased breathing rate, increased plasma pH, and hypocapnia Decreased breathing rate, increased plasma pH, and respiratory alkalosis Increased breathing rate, decreased plasma pH, and hypercapnia
How does a prolonged fast affect the body’s pH? pH increases after a fast pH decreases after a fast No effect on pH Impossible to predict
Mrs. Adams has diabetes mellitus, but rarely eats “diabetic friendly” meals. What condition may result from her poor eating behavior? Lactic acidosis Ketoacidosis Respiratory alkalosis Glomerulonephritis
Why can prolonged vomiting produce metabolic alkalosis, while prolonged diarrhea produces metabolic acidosis? Diarrhea causes loss of HCO3- in the ECF/ vomiting causes increase of HCO3- in the ECF. Diarrhea causes H+ ions to be replenished from blood stream/vomiting generates HCl. 1 and 2 are correct. None of the above is correct.
Why are effects of diet more profound and immediate in infants compared with adults? Infants’ energy sources and mineral reserves are smaller. Infants have less body water, making fluid shifts more profound. Infants have a much higher bicarbonate content in their ECF. None of the above is correct.
What change in an elderly person’s body contributes to poor acid-base balance? Reduction in ability to concentrate urine Reduction in total body water content Reduction in GFR and reduction in number of functional nephrons Reduction in ADH and aldosterone sensitivity