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Unit 4-World Religions

Unit 4-World Religions

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Unit 4-World Religions

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  1. Unit 4-World Religions

  2. Why were religions created? What basic characteristics do most religions have in common? Bell work

  3. Main Five Religions • Judaism • Hinduism • Buddhism • Islam • Christianity World Religions

  4. Religion Chart

  5. Began by the Hebrews (Jews or Israelites) Believed in one God, Yehwah and teachings are written in Torah Main duty is to worship God and live justly and ethically Preach of a coming Messiah Not overly concerned with the afterlife Kingdom was Israel and capital was Jerusalem Pray in Synagogues Judaism

  6. Believe Abraham moved from Ur to Canaan (Palestine) where God promised him the land When drought hit, Hebrews went to Egypt and became slaves Moses let them back(Exodus) to Canaan and presented the 10 commandments Received from God on Mt. Sinai Finally settle in the ‘Promised land’ Judaism

  7. Main Holidays- Yom Kippur-day to atone Rosh Hashanah-New Year Passover-Escape from Egypt Dress- Tallit- Yarmulke The Western Wall is one of the holiest site Judaism

  8. Worksheet Questions 1,2 Judaism Assignment

  9. Religion Chart-Fill out the Following chart on Judaism

  10. Christianity

  11. Follows the teaching of Jesus • According to Gospels, Jesus was born the son of God and descendant of King David of Israel • Jesus traveled preaching (mostly Jewish principles) • Roman Governor Pontius Pilate crucified Jesus • Key Text: Bible-New Testament • 4 Gospels –Matthew, Mark, Luke, John • Early years the church was very diverse • Different books, points of view • Council of Nicea 325 AD • Sacred Sites- Church of the Holy Sepulcher Christianity

  12. Christianity Spreads • At first Roman Christians were persecuted • Emperor Constantine ended the persecution and later Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire

  13. Islam

  14. The third Abrahamic religion (Judaism, Christianity) Began on the Arabian Peninsula(present-day Saudi-Arabia) Founder, Muhammad, was born in Mecca At 40, he was called to be messenger of God (year 610) Began preaching his message-Muslims are his followers He was threatened so he left Mecca for Medina where he amassed followers Later he retakes Mecca Islam(submission to the will of God)

  15. One God, called Allah Muhammad was the last prophet Study Quran(holy book) Visit the Kaaba Five Pillars of Islam Jihad (Defend the faith) Worship in Mosques No official clergy Islamic Beliefs Crescent Moon Burqa Hijab-to cover

  16. Five Pillars of Islam • 1. Declaration of Faith • 2. Pray 5 times a day toward Mecca • 3. Give charity to poor (alms) • 4. Fast during holy month of Ramadan • 5. Make pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca

  17. After the death of Muhammad, Islam Split: • Shia: Sons of Muhammad take over • Sunni: Muhammad said pick a successor Gained control of Palestine (“The Holy Land”) and built Dome of Rock in Jerusalem Islam Spreads and Splits

  18. Hinduism Chart

  19. Due to the wide diversity in the beliefs, practices and traditions encompassed by Hinduism, there is no universally accepted definition on who a Hindu is, or even agreement on whether the term Hinduism represents a religious, cultural or socio-political entity. In 1995, Chief Justice P. B. Gajendragadkar was quoted in an Indian Supreme Court ruling:[16] When we think of the Hindu religion, unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one god; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not appear to satisfy the narrow traditional features of any religion or creed. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more. Hinduism

  20. Began in the Indus River Valley (India) Often referred to as the world oldest religion No single founder and No single sacred text, Most come from the Vedas and Upanishads-ancient Indo –Aryan texts Divine essence(Brahman) fills everything in the world People have an individual essence called Atman Brahman and Atman are one and the same Monism- belief that all things in the universe are of the essence of God Hinduism Om or Aum: Symbol often associated with Hinduism, symbolic of states of consciousness

  21. Believe in reincarnation: rebirth of souls Soul is trapped is a process called Samsara Goal to achieve Nirvana or Moksha: Union with Brahman, the single spiritual power, perfect peace 1. Dharma: doing one’s moral duty, living an ethical life so your soul can advance in the next 2. Karma: deed or act with good or bad impact caused by one’s actions Samsara Life Cycle Practice Meditation and Yoga to achieve a unity of body and soul Beliefs

  22. 1. Brahma, the creator 2. Vishnu, the protector 3. Shiva, the destroyer Most Popular Forms of the Hindu God

  23. Hinduism Reinforced caste system: Social class determined by birth Untouchables not even a caste

  24. Hinduism

  25. Buddhism

  26. Beliefs Basics • Follow the teaching of the Buddha(563 BC-483) • Believe in reincarnation, karma, samsara life cycle • Buddha’s main concern was to end human suffering, unhappiness and ignorance • To attain enlightenment or nirvana: • Know the 4 noble truths • Follow the eightfold path • Follow the middle way • Buddha did not accept the Hindu gods • Taught anyone could reach nirvana regardless of class • Two main forms of Buddhism • Mahayana • Theravada • Tripitika is often regarded as key text • Worship in temples at times Lotus flowers and the wheel of life are often symbols Buddhists have no specific dress code except for the monks who follow a specified dress code of yellow or orange robes. The monastic robes for the Buddhist is known as thecivara. Their robes are worn in three parts. Vesak (Buddha Day) Vesak is the birthday of the Buddha and the most important festival in Buddhism. On the first full moon day in May, Buddhists all over the world celebrate the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha in a single day. Mayabodhi Temple, site of Buddha enlightenment. Buddhism Notes

  27. Open Buddhism web quest on the web page Visit the website on the sheet to complete Buddhism Web quest

  28. Judaism Judaism Yahweh Israel Abraham, Moses Torah Star of David Synagogues, Temples Tallit, Yarmulke One God, 10 Commandments Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah, Passover Wailing Wall

  29. Christianity Christianity God, Lord, Heavenly Father Israel Jesus, Apostle Paul The Bible, New Testament Cross Churches No Code, Rosary, Cross Holy Trinity, Teachings of Jesus Christmas, Lent, Easter, Good Friday Church of the Holy Sepulcher

  30. Islam Islam Allah Present Day Saudi Arabia Muhammad Quran Crescent Moon Mosques Burqa 5 pillars of faith, teachings of Muhammad Ramadan Kaaba, Dome of the Rock

  31. Hinduism Hinduism Brahman, can take many forms India No one founder Vedas and Upanishads Om or Aum Temples Bindi, Dhoti, Sari Samsara life cycle, reincarnation, dharma, karma Holi, Diwali

  32. Buddhism Buddhism Doesn’t focus on a deity India Buddha Tripiṭaka Lotus flower, wheel of life, Buddha statue Temples Civara 4 noble truths, Eightfold path, middle way Vesak (Buddha Day) Mahabodhi Temple