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Question 13

Question 13

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Question 13

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  1. Question 13 • Evaluation of the Korean War , 1950年10月—1953年7月. (East Asia 550/586-587) • Split of Korea in 1945: divided by the 38th Parallel 三八线

  2. What Happened? • In June 1950, Russia approved North Korea’s plan to invade South Korea; • For North Korea, it is justified as an effort to achieve unification • In October, US/UN troops crossed the 38th Parallel, heading the Yalu River, the border between North Korea and China

  3. Peng Dehuai(October 24, 1898 – November 29, 1974)Defense Minister in China • Defence Minister from 1954 to 1959. Peng was an important commander during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), the Chinese civil war (1945-1949) and was also the commander-in-chief of People's Volunteer Army in the Korean War (1950-1953).

  4. Peng was arrested in 1966 and put in the hands of violent Red Guard torturers, beaten 130 times until his internal organs were crushed and his back splintered. During interrogations he shouted denials to the Red Guards who beat him, and it is reputed that he pounded the table so hard the cell walls shook. Red Guards took him several times to "Peng Dehuai struggle rallies", where he was publicly beaten. He died of cancer in November 29, 1974. Red Guards humiliating Peng Dehuai

  5. Assessment of the Korean War • Korean War gave the Communist Party legitimacy in China; • It shows that China has stood up and beaten back the imperialists; • China’s role made US nervous, • The Seventh Fleet started patrolling the waters between the Mainland and Taiwan • Increased US aid to Taiwan

  6. Cold War • Cold War between US and USSR (1945 end of World War II-1990Dissolution of the Soviet Union苏联解体) • rivalry after World War II between the Soviet Union and its satellites and the democratic countries of the Western world, under the leadership of the United States.

  7. North Atlantic Treaty《北大西洋条约》1949Early members

  8. Later members of NATO

  9. an armed attack against one state to be an armed attack against all states • The key section of the treaty was Article V which committed each member state to consider an armed attack against one state to be an armed attack against all states. The treaty was created with an armed attack by the Soviet Union against Western Europe in mind, but the mutual self-defense clause was never invoked during the Cold War. Rather, it was invoked for the first time in 2001 in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks against the World Trade Center and The Pentagon in Operation Eagle Assist. It was only activated once for 9.11

  10. Question 14 • Critical evaluation of the second five-year plan (East Asia 555-558) • Three Red Flags/three magic weapons • General Guidelines • Great Leap Forward • People’s Communes

  11. The second Five-Year Plan was created to accomplish… • expanding heavy industry in China. • furthering the cause of socialism by transferring more property to collective ownership. • encouraging the economic growth of China through industry, agriculture, handicrafts, transportation and commerce. • cultivating cultural and scientific development of the Chinese people. • strengthening national defense and improving living standards in China.

  12. Three Red Flags: 总路线 【zǒnglùxiàn】 general guideline to build socialism; 大跃进【dàyuèjìn】 great leap forward. 人民公社 【rénmíngōngshè】 people's commune. 26,000; 98% The People’s Communes system was terminated in the late 1980s; Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai opposed such a reckless move; 虚报【xūbào】 make a false report. 浮夸【fúkuā】 be boastful and exaggeration. 土法【tǔfǎ】 indigenous method; local method. 炼钢【liàngāng】 steelmaking; steel-smelting. 科学【kēxué】 science; scientific knowledge. 多快好省【duōkuàihǎoshěng】 achieve greater, fast, better and more economical results.

  13. Though the People’s Communes system worked just fine in helping the weak and the poor, it failed to motivate peasants/farmers to make more contributions; Equality seems counterproductive 工分【gōngfēn】 workpoint (a unit indicating the quantity and quality of labor performed; and the amount of payment earned in rural people's communes). No Incentives

  14. Consequences • The Great Leap Forward (East Asia 555-558) and Anti-Rightist movements that emerged in 1958 caused imbalances in the national economy, fiscal deficits over consecutive years, great hardship for the people. • Irrational exuberance • Lack of infrastructure • Disconnection between subjectivity and objectivity

  15. Chaotic years: The Cultural Revolution1966-1976 • Chaotic years: The Cultural Revolution and its consequences (1966-1976) (East Asia 558-563) • Chairman Mao’s inflexibility in adopting “class struggle” in peace time echoes Chiang Kai-shek’s inflexibility in pursing his priority for domestic peace over external resistance against Japanese;

  16. The Cultural Revolution 1966 to 1976 • The Cultural Revolution was the continuation of the previous political movement; • Mao Zedong’s mobilization of Red Guards generated huge unintended consequences • It encouraged a bottom-up nation wide chaos

  17. Mao Zedong’s Role • Since 1935 at the Conference of Zunyi • Mao’s role in Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945) • Mao’s role in the Civil War (1945-1949) • Without Mao Zedong, there will be no new China • Aesopian approach in • The Emperor and the Assassin vs. Hero • Mao’s mistake during the Cultural Revolution • His inflexibility is a form of paralysis in James Joyce’s term; • Consequence of one-dimensionality

  18. The Cultural Revolution Task Force: Chen Boda; Kang Sheng, Jiang Qing and Chang Chunqiao Directly under the ‘Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China—9 member cabinet It was launched by Mao Zedong, the chairman of the Communist Party of China, on May 16, 1966; he alleged that "liberal bourgeoise" elements were permeating the party and society at large and that they wanted to restore capitalism. May 16th Notice, 1966

  19. withdraw to the second line of duty—retire from active life and take up a nominal post (usu. in a consultant capacity) In December 1964, Mao was not invited a meeting on the Four Cleanups; Mao showed up nevertheless and stressed on the importance of maintaining “class struggle” Liu Shaoqi contradicted Mao on the spot by insisting that it depends on specific context… Choosing a Successor (1953)

  20. Chairman of the People's Republic of China, China's head of state, from 27 April 1959 to 31 October 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China. He fell out of favor in the later 1960s during the Cultural Revolution because of his perceived 'right-wing' viewpoints and, it is theorized, because Mao viewed Liu as a threat to his power. Note Lin Piao and the Gang of Four were officially blamed for the persecution of Liu Shaoqi. Liu Shaoqi(24 November 1898 – 12 November 1969)

  21. 平反【píngfǎn】 redress (a mishandled case); rehabilitate. Liu Shaoqi disappeared from public life in 1968 and was labeled China's pre’mier 'Capitalist-roader' and a traitor. He died under harsh treatment in late 1969, but he was ‘posthumously reha’bilitated by Deng Xiaoping's government in 1980 and given a state funeral.

  22. Bombard The Headquarters – My First Big-Character Poster炮打司令部——我的一张大字报) • was a short document written by Mao Zedong on August 5, 1966 during the 11th Plenary Session of the 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and published on the Communist Party's official newspaper People's Daily the same day. • It is commonly believed that this "poster" directly targeted at Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, who were then in charge of Chinese government's daily affairs and who tried to cool down the mass hysteria which had been coming into shape in several universities in Beijing since the May 16 Notice, through which Mao officially launched the Cultural Revolution, was issued.

  23. An anti-Liu Shaoqi poster in 1968. It reads, "The renegade, traitor and scab Liu Shaoqi must forever be expelled from the Party!". (Note that the characters that form Liu Shaoqi's name are crossed out.) An anti-Liu Shaoqi poster

  24. Propaganda poster showing Jiang Qing, saying: "Let the new socialist performing arts occupy every stage.", 1967. (This poster is unique in that it uses both unsimplified Chinese characters-佔 as opposed to 占- and Second-round simplified Chinese characters-午 as opposed to 舞.) Jiang Qing’s Role

  25. Lin Piao was appointed as Mao Zedong’s successor in 1969; Lin disappeared in 1971, with the standard claim being that his plane crashed in Inner Mongolia after attempting a coup. Lin PiaoDecember 5, 1907– September 13, 1971

  26. Project 571 (五七一a near-homonym “for armed uprising 武装起义”工程) was an alleged plot or coup d'etat against Chinese leader Mao Zedong in 1971 by the supporters of Lin Biao, then Vice-Chairman of the Communist Party of China. The operations were supposedly led by Lin's son, Lin Liguo, a high-ranking officer in the People's Liberation Air Force. The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1955. Project 571 aims to bring down the modern Qin Shi Huang - B-52" as its slogan and creed Ways to have Mao assassinated were listed with details; Mao Zedong aged suddenly; Project 571 by Lin Piao

  27. Subjects rebellious against the ruler; Sons rebellious against fathers; Husbands and wives split; Brothers against each other Friends vs. friends A civil war of a different kind Most important, educational system was ruined Schools were closed; libraries were burned; teachers were tortured; Breakdown of the Five-Fold Human Relationships

  28. Consequences of the Cultural Revolution • 1. A cultural wasteland due to no education or an inferior education with its watered-down curriculum: schools are closed, libraries are burned, teachers are tortured; significance of 1977 • 2. traditional five-fold human relationships are redefined: internal conflicts are maximized at every level;

  29. Consequences of the Cultural Revolution • 3. “No production” lasted for quite a while since workers and peasants focused on class struggle; • 4. Leadership was ruined at every level • 5. one-color ideology: Mao’s little red book;

  30. Three Political Stars Fell (1976) • On January 8th, Zhou Enlai passed away • On July 6th, Zhu De passed away • On September 9th, Chairman Mao passed away • China faced a critical moment • Earthquake in Tangshan, July 28, 1976 • The new chairman of China's Communist Party Hua Guofeng has ordered the arrest of four leading radicals in Peking. The Bait…The Gang of Four (East Asia 563/566)

  31. The Arrest of the Gang of Four (1976) • On October 6th, 1976, at 8:00 pm, Zhang Chunqiao, Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan were arrested; • The bait was to discuss the publication of Chairman Mao’s 5th selected works, among other things; • Jiang Qing was arrested at 8:30 pm;

  32. The arrest of the Gang of FourThe Gang of Four at their trial in 1981

  33. Habitual behavior • Trained certain way • Some people got restless if there is no political movement; • They get excited about class struggle • They take pleasure in fighting someone • Their momentum, formed by habit, can’t be curbed;