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Modern English 1800-2005. English 1720. British Colonies 1763. Declaration of Indepence 1776. British Colonies 1815. British Empire 1918-1939. Languages of India. English-speaking countries 2000. British Empire 1918-1939. English-speaking countries 2000. English in Europe.
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English-speaking countries 2000 British Empire 1918-1939 English-speaking countries 2000
English as a world language English is the language of all international affairs: politics, economy, culture, science, air traffic, sports.
Globalisation • Political dominance of the US • World wide trading relationships • Increasing mobility • The Internet
The Future of English Will the world end up with only one language? Will English become the native language of the world?
The growth of the vocabulary English has acquired many new words for new scientific and technological concepts. The bulk of the new vocabulary is only known to the specialst, but some words have become part of the everyday language.
Transportation automobile traffic light car windshield train freeway truck clutch plane gearshift railroad to park airport to tune up
Electronic media cinema videotape movie VCR film DVD broadcast stereo television radio cable TV soap opera telephone antenna cell phone microphone
Computer computer PC software modem hardware RAM mouse byte cursor internet download email to surf the internet hacker virus firewall spam mail CD-ROM
Medicine AIDS proteins Antibiotics cholesterol vaccine carbohydrate clinic EKG injection DNA hormones x-rays aspirin schizophrenic insulin immune system
Food chili Goulash enchilada tofu taco muesli nachos pizza junk food coca cola French fries pepsi potato chips gyros hamburger muffin
French chef chauffeur menu coupon beige elite gourmet garage restaurant genre au pair semantics
Spanish gringo nachos mustang enchilada ranch chili bronco taco
Italian lasagna mafia pasta fiasco salami inferno
Japanese judo bonsai tycoon karate karaoke geisha kamikaze hara-kiri
Yiddish kosher to schlep bagel to schwitz
German kindergarten leitmotif zeitgeist angst gestalt festschrift pretzel weltanschauung schnaps poodle strudel to yodel
Compounding fire extinguisher streamline lipstick skyline railroad airplane jet lag airport junk food space shuttle lifestyle to skydive roller blades to outsource
Affixation transoceanic postmodernism transcontinental postcolonialism trans-Siberian postgraduate study transliterate post doc prenatal decode preschool defrost preregistration deflate prehistoric debunk
Blends brunch Frisco motel Amtrack chunnel trafficator smog fantabulous snark chortle
Brand names sandwich shrapnel kodak boycott cola limousine camembert tabasco
Acronyms Radar radio detecting and ranging) AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom OPEC Organization of Petrolium Exporting Countries NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Metaphor hardware garbage can mouse desktop memory file language window program email spyware firewall virus antivirus
Phonological changes Flapping of [t] in American English: ladder matter writer
Spelling pronunciations forehead clapboard calm, psalm, palm, balm chalk, folk
Strong-weak verbs OLD NEW abide abode abided mow mew mowed saw sew sawed strive strove strived swell swoll swelled Thrive throve thrived
Relative pronoun • Which can no longer be used with a human antecedent. 2. Which and that mark the contrast between restrictive and non-restrictive relatives. 3. In SUBJ-relatives, the relative pronoun is obligatory. (1) *He talked to the man __ bought our company. (2) He talked to the man Jack met __ on the street.
Prepositions and conjunctions (1) granted, pending (2) in front of, on the basis of (3) assuming that, given that (4) on grounds that, in view of the fact that Standard use New common use convince of convince about married to married with take charge of take charge over in search of in search for
Passive progressive (1) My car is being broken. (2) My house is being painted. (3) This problem is being discussed at today’s meeting. (1’) My car is repairing. (2’) My house is painting. (3’) This problem is discussing today’s meeting.
Get passive (1) The walls were painted. (2) The walls got painted.
Gonna future I am going to marry Bill. [i.e. I am leaving in order to marry Bill] I [am going [to marry [Bill]]]. >>> I [[[am [going to]] marry] [Bill]]
Lexical expressions and grammatical markers Lexical Grammatical noun prepositions verbs conjunctions adjectives pronouns auxiliaries bound morphemes
Grammaticalization Source Target: AUX go (motion) gonna will (intention) will have (possession) have
Grammaticalization Source Target: P during (verb) during in front of (PP) in front of a-gone (PRE-verb) ago
Grammaticalization Source Target: CONJ by cause (PP) because DEM while SUB while given given
Grammaticalization Source Target: PRO/ART some body (NP) somebody one (numeral) the one one (numeral) a
Grammaticalization Source Target: Discourse do you know y‘know I think (I) think I guess (I) guess
Grammaticalization Source Target: Bound NOUN -ly NOUN -hood did -ed