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Modern English 1800-2005

Modern English 1800-2005. English 1720. British Colonies 1763. Declaration of Indepence 1776. British Colonies 1815. British Empire 1918-1939. Languages of India. English-speaking countries 2000. British Empire 1918-1939. English-speaking countries 2000. English in Europe.

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Modern English 1800-2005

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  1. Modern English1800-2005

  2. English 1720

  3. British Colonies 1763

  4. Declaration of Indepence 1776

  5. British Colonies 1815

  6. British Empire 1918-1939

  7. Languages of India

  8. English-speaking countries 2000 British Empire 1918-1939 English-speaking countries 2000

  9. English in Europe

  10. English in North America

  11. English in the Caribbean

  12. English in Africa

  13. English in Asia and the Pacific

  14. English as a world language English is the language of all international affairs: politics, economy, culture, science, air traffic, sports.

  15. Globalisation • Political dominance of the US • World wide trading relationships • Increasing mobility • The Internet

  16. The Future of English Will the world end up with only one language? Will English become the native language of the world?

  17. The growth of the vocabulary English has acquired many new words for new scientific and technological concepts. The bulk of the new vocabulary is only known to the specialst, but some words have become part of the everyday language.

  18. Transportation automobile traffic light car windshield train freeway truck clutch plane gearshift railroad to park airport to tune up

  19. Electronic media cinema videotape movie VCR film DVD broadcast stereo television radio cable TV soap opera telephone antenna cell phone microphone

  20. Computer computer PC software modem hardware RAM mouse byte cursor internet download email to surf the internet hacker virus firewall spam mail CD-ROM

  21. Medicine AIDS proteins Antibiotics cholesterol vaccine carbohydrate clinic EKG injection DNA hormones x-rays aspirin schizophrenic insulin immune system

  22. Food chili Goulash enchilada tofu taco muesli nachos pizza junk food coca cola French fries pepsi potato chips gyros hamburger muffin

  23. French chef chauffeur menu coupon beige elite gourmet garage restaurant genre au pair semantics

  24. Spanish gringo nachos mustang enchilada ranch chili bronco taco

  25. Italian lasagna mafia pasta fiasco salami inferno

  26. Japanese judo bonsai tycoon karate karaoke geisha kamikaze hara-kiri

  27. Yiddish kosher to schlep bagel to schwitz

  28. German

  29. German kindergarten leitmotif zeitgeist angst gestalt festschrift pretzel weltanschauung schnaps poodle strudel to yodel

  30. Compounding fire extinguisher streamline lipstick skyline railroad airplane jet lag airport junk food space shuttle lifestyle to skydive roller blades to outsource

  31. Affixation transoceanic postmodernism transcontinental postcolonialism trans-Siberian postgraduate study transliterate post doc prenatal decode preschool defrost preregistration deflate prehistoric debunk

  32. Blends brunch Frisco motel Amtrack chunnel trafficator smog fantabulous snark chortle

  33. Brand names sandwich shrapnel kodak boycott cola limousine camembert tabasco

  34. Acronyms Radar radio detecting and ranging) AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom OPEC Organization of Petrolium Exporting Countries NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  35. Metaphor hardware garbage can mouse desktop memory file language window program email spyware firewall virus antivirus

  36. Phonological changes Flapping of [t] in American English: ladder matter writer

  37. Spelling pronunciations forehead clapboard calm, psalm, palm, balm chalk, folk

  38. Strong-weak verbs OLD NEW abide abode abided mow mew mowed saw sew sawed strive strove strived swell swoll swelled Thrive throve thrived

  39. Relative pronoun • Which can no longer be used with a human antecedent. 2. Which and that mark the contrast between restrictive and non-restrictive relatives. 3. In SUBJ-relatives, the relative pronoun is obligatory. (1) *He talked to the man __ bought our company. (2) He talked to the man Jack met __ on the street.

  40. Prepositions and conjunctions (1) granted, pending (2) in front of, on the basis of (3) assuming that, given that (4) on grounds that, in view of the fact that Standard use New common use convince of convince about married to married with take charge of take charge over in search of in search for

  41. Passive progressive (1) My car is being broken. (2) My house is being painted. (3) This problem is being discussed at today’s meeting. (1’) My car is repairing. (2’) My house is painting. (3’) This problem is discussing today’s meeting.

  42. Get passive (1) The walls were painted. (2) The walls got painted.

  43. Gonna future I am going to marry Bill. [i.e. I am leaving in order to marry Bill] I [am going [to marry [Bill]]]. >>> I [[[am [going to]] marry] [Bill]]

  44. Lexical expressions and grammatical markers Lexical Grammatical noun prepositions verbs conjunctions adjectives pronouns auxiliaries bound morphemes

  45. Grammaticalization Source Target: AUX go (motion) gonna will (intention) will have (possession) have

  46. Grammaticalization Source Target: P during (verb) during in front of (PP) in front of a-gone (PRE-verb) ago

  47. Grammaticalization Source Target: CONJ by cause (PP) because DEM while SUB while given given

  48. Grammaticalization Source Target: PRO/ART some body (NP) somebody one (numeral) the one one (numeral) a

  49. Grammaticalization Source Target: Discourse do you know y‘know I think (I) think I guess (I) guess

  50. Grammaticalization Source Target: Bound NOUN -ly NOUN -hood did -ed

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