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CHAPTER 1: MATTER AND CHANGE

CHAPTER 1: MATTER AND CHANGE

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CHAPTER 1: MATTER AND CHANGE

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  1. CHAPTER 1:MATTER AND CHANGE Chemistry

  2. Notes Pages 5-6 Elements

  3. http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.eiu.fusion/http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.eiu.fusion/ The Origin of the elements

  4. Helps - • Alchemist • Try to combine substances to get new, more valuable substances • Turn lead into gold, etc. • “You cannot get blood from a turnip” • No matter how hard you try, you can’t get anything out of it.

  5. Carl Sagan, Cosmos • “The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars. We are made of starstuff.”

  6. Groups and Periods Group: Vertical column (also called a family) • Elements with similar chemical properties Period: Horizontal row • Physical and chemical properties change regularly across a period

  7. Metals METAL: an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity Characteristics: • Shiny (metallic luster) • Most are solid at room temperature • Malleable (can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets) • Ductile (can be drawn into wire) • Classifications – alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, other metals

  8. Good Conductor

  9. Nonmetals NONMETAL: an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity Characteristics • Many are gases at room temperature (Ex: N, O, F, Cl, etc.) • Many are solids at room temperature (Ex: C, P, Se, S, I, etc.) • Solids are brittle (NOT malleable or ductile) • Classifications – halogens, noble gases, other nonmetals

  10. Characteristics of Metals

  11. Noble Gases (Group 18) • Unreactive • All are gases at room temperature

  12. Metalloids METALLOID: an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals Characteristics • All are solid at room temperature • Less malleable than metals, but not as brittle as nonmetals • Also known as semiconductors or semimetals

  13. Periodic Tables • Color these seven sections of the table (Remember to make a key so you know which is which): • Alkali Metals • Alkaline Earth Metals • Halogens • Noble Gases • Transition Metals • Non-Metals • Metalloids

  14. Alkali Metals

  15. Alkaline Earth Metals

  16. Halogens

  17. Noble Gases

  18. Transition Metals

  19. Non-Metals

  20. Metalloids