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  2. What is Matter? • Must have mass • Occupies space (has volume)

  3. Density • Because all matter has mass and volume, all matter has density. D = M V

  4. Law of Conservation of Matter • Matter cannot be created or destroyed

  5. When 400 grams of wood are burned only about 30 grams of ash remain. • What happened to the missing matter?

  6. During a chemical reaction matter is conserved

  7. States of Matter • Matter can exist in three basic states: • Solid (s) • Liquid (l) • Gas (g)

  8. A Fourth State of Matter? • Plasma • Occurs when the atoms of matter have been stripped of their electrons.

  9. Basic Types of Matter

  10. Pure Substances

  11. Elements

  12. Elements • Made up of atoms of one specific type • Cannot be broken down further by a chemical reaction • Have specific physical and chemical properties.

  13. The Periodic Table of Elements • Each element has its own atomic number • Atomic number tells us the number of protons in that elements nucleus.

  14. Examples of Elements

  15. What elements can you find in the classroom now?

  16. What elements are important in the food we eat?

  17. Where Do We Get Elements? • Obtained in nature in their pure state.

  18. Some elements are combined together in compounds and are separated out through chemical reactions.

  19. Some elements don’t exist naturally, and are man-made through nuclear bombardment reactions

  20. Elements and Their Symbols • Elements have either one or two letters when they are written as a symbol. • If two letters, the second letter is written lower case. (Ex: Write Cu for copper not CU)

  21. Usually it is pretty easy to match an element to its symbol (Ex: Neon = Ne) • Sometimes the symbol is derived from a Latin name for the element. • Ex: Au = gold (comes from Latin word aurum)

  22. Here are some of the harder elements to match their name to their symbol. Na = sodium K = potassium Fe = iron Cu = copper Sb = antimony Sn = tin Pb = lead Hg = mercury W = tungstun Au = gold Ag = silver Tricky Elements

  23. Phases and Elements • Under standard conditions, most elements exist as solids. • The Gases: • H, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, O, F, Cl • The Liquids: • Hg, Br

  24. Diatomic Elements • Two atoms of the same element joined • Bromine, Iodine, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine • BrINClHOF

  25. Compounds

  26. Compounds • Most elements in nature do not exist in their pure state, but in compounds. Compound = Two or more different elements bonded together chemically Ex: C6H12O6, MgCl2, CH4, NO2, CO2, NaCl

  27. Law of Definite Proportions • Elements in compounds have definite fixed proportions by mass.

  28. Getting New Properties • Compounds have different chemical and physical properties than the elements that make them up.

  29. - Sodium (Na) Toxic, reactive metal that will explode in water - Chlorine (Cl) Brown toxic gas that was used as a chemical weapon to kill people in WWI Sodium Chloride (NaCl) White edible crystal, and salt for my french fries!!

  30. Focus Question • What are the differences between elements and compounds?

  31. Mixtures

  32. Mixtures • Two or more pure substances physically mixed together. • Can be two or more elements, compounds or both. • Mixtures can be solid, liquid or gaseous.

  33. Composition Not Fixed • The composition of a mixture is NOT FIXED. • It can vary depending on how much of each component is added.

  34. Retaining Their Properties • The substances in mixtures retain their own individual properties. • Ex: Iron filings (Fe) and sand (SiO2) • Even if mixed the iron retains its magnetic properties

  35. Types of Mixtures

  36. Homogeneous Mixtures • Components are distributed uniformly at the molecular level. • All true solutions are homogeneous.

  37. Aqueous = (aq) Mean the substance is dissolved in water. • Ex: NaCl (aq) means a salt water solution

  38. Heterogeneous Mixtures • Components are not uniformly distributed at the molecular level. • Colloids and suspensions are included in this category.

  39. How to Tell if a True Solution • Tyndall Effect • When you have a suspension or a colloid the larger particles will scatter a beam of light. In a true solution the light will not be scattered

  40. Techniques to Separate Mixtures

  41. Separating Mixtures • Components of a mixture retain their own original properties, you can use these properties to separate the components. • Ex: density, particle size differences, solubility differences, boiling point temperature, magnetic properties

  42. Filtration • Ex: Separate water and sand • Technique cannot be used to separate components of solutions

  43. Separatory Funnel • Ex: Separate oil and water

  44. Evaporation • Ex: Separate sugar from water

  45. Chromatography • Separates different compounds dissolved in the same liquid. • Use Chromatography Paper • Liquid runs up the paper and components separate out along the length of the paper. • Ex: Separate different types of chlorophyll