Act of Union 1841- The joining of Upper and Lower Canada under one government.- Was a recommendation of Lord Durham’s Report in 1839- The main provisions:1) The establishment of a single parliament with equal representation from each constituent 2) consolidation of debt 3) a permanent Civil List4) Banishment of the French language from official government use5) And suspension of specific French Canadian institutions relating to education and civil law.
The Act naturally aroused considerable opposition. In Upper Canada, the Family Compact opposed union, and in Lower Canada religious and political leaders reacted against its anti-French measures. • Family Compact – the local aristocracy of Upper Canada. • The Act was unfair to Lower Canada with its larger population and smaller debt.
British North American Act • The 1867 Confederation was named the British North American Act. • The BNA Act contained British and Canadian statutes having constitutional effect (ex: the Canada Elections Act), and certain unwritten principles known as "the conventions of the constitution." Conventions such as the power vested in the Crown to dissolve Parliament and call a general election. The Fathers of Confederation (John A. Macdonald in the middle window)
The Indian Act 1876 History: 1868 – The First Federal Indian Act was passed giving Central government control over “Indians and Lands reserved for the Indians” 1869 – enfranchisement was legislated. Enfranchisement – was the most common of the legal processes by which native peoples lost their Indian status under the Indian Act. The term was used both for those who give up their status by choice, and for the much larger number of native women who lost status automatically upon marriage to non-native men.
Indian Act continued 1867 – Assimilation techniques continue such as the banning of the Sundance and Potlatch and later on through a policy of “aggressive assimilation” through Residential Schools, northern relocation, and The 60’s Scoop . 1876 – The Indian Act spelled out a process of continued enfranchisement whereby Indians could acquire full Canadian citizenship by relinquishing their ties to their community. This involved giving up one’s culture and traditions, and any rights to land. - The history and development of the Indian Act has been an assimilation tool throughout Canadian history by a variety of means. *You will be studying the Indian Act later!
The British North American Act revised into the Constitution Act of 1867 • The Act outlined divisions of powers between the Central Government (Federal) and the Provincial governments. • These divisions included the right of the Central government at any time to take precedent over large and important matters. EX: Wartime decisions, old-age pensions, security fraud, banking etc.
The Constitution Act of 1867(1982) • In 1982 the BNA Act was renamed as the Constitution Act 1867. • The Constitution Act 1867 determined equality provisions and reinstated Indian women with their status who had originally lost this through marriage to a non-Indian man. Their children gained status and band membership after 2 years and in June 1987 this provision was changed to include children immediately into the band.
The Hudson’s Bay Company • This HBC is the oldest incorporated merchandising company in the English-speaking world. • Formerly headquartered in London, England and moved to Winnipeg, Manitoba and a head office Toronto, Ontario. • Currently the HBC employs close to 70, 000 people and is also Home Outfitters, Zellers, The Bay, and Fields. Prince of Wales Fort built in 1717 at the mouth of the Churchill River.
HBC continued… • There were numerous land and Naval battles over fur trading rights, land ownership and posts between England’s HBC and France. These battles lead to the Treaty of Utrecht 1713 when France acknowledged England’s claim to Hudson Bay. • The North West Company was their immediate rivals and in 1821 the two companies joined and were given monopoly rights to the North-West Territories.
HBC….again… • The HBC became a governing body who developed colonial settings, land development, merchandise trading, and landholding agreements. • The HBC were trade merchants with the Métis of the Red River Colony in present day Manitoba. Tensions were strong between the Métis and the HBC over trade privileges.
Red River Settlement and the North-West Rebellion • The Red River Colony was a mix of Métis and mixed European members. Slightly over half were Francophone (Métis) and the other half were Anglophone (country-born). • During the time the HBC was under scrutiny by the Canadian government and British government a growing number of US and Canadian settlers moved in and increased the growing unrest of mixed blood settlers losing land rights, culture and trading opportunities. • In 1869 the Canadian Government bought Rupert’s Land from the HBC and appointed an English speaking Lieutenant-Governor who was strongly opposed by the French speaking settlers. • The Lieutenant-governor sent out land surveyors before the land was officially transferred to Canada and had the land divided into sections with a very strong movement to Canadian expansion and the loss of lands from the original settlers of the colony. • In 1869 due to increasing tensions Louis Riel emerged as the Métis spokesperson to support the 8, 000 Métis living in the area.
Your task: Individually you will get a text called “Canada Today” 3rd Ed. From the bookshelf. You will read pages 37-39 and fill-in the handout on summarizing and paraphrasing on the North-West Rebellion.