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Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning. By David Davis. Cooperative Learning. “Small-group instruction and practice that uses positive student interactions as a means of achieving instructional goals.”

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Cooperative Learning

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  1. Cooperative Learning By David Davis

  2. Cooperative Learning • “Small-group instruction and practice that uses positive student interactions as a means of achieving instructional goals.” • Students work as heterogeneous teams in an inclusive learning environment, with each student’s task important for team goal achievement. (Dyson & Grineski, 2001)

  3. History The Cooperative Learning model was developed in the Mid- 1970s at John Hopkins University by Robert Slavin. It was first reported in a series of research articles in education journals It is considered one of the most recognized instructional models now in education worldwide. The model was first labeled Student Team Learning that was based on three concepts: • Team Rewards- ex. Grades, classroom privileges, etc. • Individual Accountability- All members perfom • Equal Opportunities for Success- Heterogeneous groups (Slavin 1983)

  4. Theory of Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning model is based on the convergence of four major sets of Theories: • Motivation Theory • Cognitive Theory • Social learning Theories • Behavioral Theory

  5. Cooperative Learning is Valid Because Methods applicable to a wide range of subjects & grade levels • Student Teams Achievement (STAD) • Team Games Tournament (TGT) • Team-Assisted Instruction (TAI) • Jigsaw • Group Investigation

  6. Cooperative Learning is Valid Because • It helps to promote student achievement • Group goals • Individual Accountability (Putnam 1998) • Helps to improve relations amoung different ethnic groups • “Interaction within a cooperative context is a major determinant of whether cross-ethnic contact produces positive attitudes and relationships (Johnson & Johnson 1989)

  7. Cooperative Learning is Valid Because • Helps students with Disabilities • Slavin (1995) indicated that cooperative learning increases the academic achievement and social acceptance of students with disabilities (Putnam 1998)

  8. Verification • CL helps the students to be involved with several tasks that will help build problem solving strategies, social skills, communication, leadership, decision making, and their critical thinking. • With this the students are able to produce higher academic achievement when used properly

  9. Verification cont. • Other things that are promoted by Cooperative Learning are: • Greater Persistence through graduation • Better understanding of the material • Less disruptive behavior • Helps to lower stress and anxiety • Motivates • Positive attitudes • Builds relationships • See other students perspectives

  10. Elements of Cooperative Learning In order for learning to be maximized the following elements should be considered by physical education • Team formation • Positive interdependence • Individual accountability (Johnson et al., 1998) • Positive social interaction skills • Group processing (Dyson & Grineski 2001)

  11. Teacher Benchmarks • Selects heterogeneous teams • Lists the criteria used for making the selections • Shows a plan to how students are assigned • Students feedback • Selects a learning task • State time limits and procedures • Task can be completed in time period • Task requires all team members • Challenges teams in all three domains • Selects learning strategy

  12. Teacher Benchmarks cont. • Assign learning task • Provides information about the task without giving any clues for completing the task • Teams become engaged right away • Serves as facilitator • Monitors number and types of interactions • Use only indirect statements and questions • Monitors and process learning outcomes • Designs Assement • Should be designed for team achievement with each member having individual accountability • Include specific social learning goals

  13. Student Benchmarks • View teams as being fair • Are asked for their comments on the selection process • Understand assigned task • Begin right away • Ask a few clarification questions of the teacher • Understand the strategy • Begin to allocate the time and other resources • Formulate a “plan of attack” • Follow procedures for completing task • Share the work and accountability with other members • Assign members specific jobs • Chart the contributions of each member • Complete peer evaluations of other members

  14. Student Benchmarks cont. • Use peer teaching to improve performance and support each member’s efforts • Monitor the type and frequency of interactions within teams • Show improvement on performance assessments • Compare assessment scores over time • Show evidence of social learning • Teacher or peers use critical incident reports or checklists to identify instances of positive and negative social behaviors

  15. Resources Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R.T. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Flowers, James C., Ritz, John M. (1994). Cooperative Learning In Technology Education. Old Dominion University Slavin, R.E.(1995). Cooperative learning: Theory, research and practice (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Putnam, J. W. (1998). Cooperative learning and strategies for inclusion: Celebrating diversity in classroom. (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Dyson, Ben, Grineski, Steve (2001). Using Cooperative Learning Structures in Physical Education. 28-31 Johnson, R., Johnson, D., Holubec, E. (1998). Advanced cooperative learning (7th ed.). Edina, MN: Interaction.

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